Note: This article has been published on the Iskcon News site, the Graham Hancock website, eSamskriti, Satyameva Jayate and the Viewzone Magazine.

Amun and Krishna

An interesting piece of information caught my attention during my journey across the sacred sites of Egypt in early 2010. During the light and sound show in the magnificent temple complex of Karnak, I heard a voice booming over the loudspeakers: “I am Amon-Ra...The waters of the Nile sprout from my sandals.” As soon as I heard this, I was reminded of the Creator God Vishnu in Hinduism. In the typical depiction of Vishnu in Hindu iconography, the sacred river Ganges is shown emerging from the toe of Vishnu, while in Egypt the waters of the Nile sprout from the sandals of Amun.

I knew that Amun was the presiding deity of Karnak, and he was worshiped there as the Creator God, along with his wife Mut, and his son Khonsu. The next day, while discussing about the light and sound show with my tour guide, he gave me another piece of information that I was not aware of, and that took me by surprise: “Amun was depicted in funerary art and temple inscriptions with a blue skin colour, with feathers in his headdress.”

Now, if anyone travels to India, and he talks to the people there about a god having a blue skin colour, with feathers in his headdress, and from whose sandals or toes a sacred river emerges, he will get a single answer: Vishnu, or more likely Krishna, for it is Krishna who was always depicted with peacock feathers in his headdress.

The blue-complexioned Amun was the Supreme Creator and head of the Egyptian pantheon
Fig1: The blue-complexioned Amun. Source:
Krishna with Radha, 18th century Rajasthani painting
Fig 2: Krishna with Radha, 18th century Rajasthani painting.
This realization has significant implications. Krishna is an Indian deity, whose demise in 3102 BC signified the start of the present Kali Yuga in the Vedic Yuga system. Amun on the other hand, was not worshiped in Egypt prior to the beginning of the New Kingdom in c.1550 BC. He is mentioned in the creation myth of Hermopolis as one of the four pairs of divinities who were present in the Primeval Waters of Nun. As Amun-Amaunet, he represented the “hidden” properties of the Primordial Ocean. An early Twelfth-Dynasty inscription in the jubilee chapel of King Senusret I (c.1965 – 1920 BC) at Karnak describes Amun as the “king of the gods”. While he was known to the Egyptians, he was not a part of the Egyptian Ennead - the Divine Company of Gods - who were the primary deities of worship. 

But suddenly at Karnak, at the beginning of the New Kingdom in c.1550 BC, Amun usurped the position of Atum, as the head of the state pantheon. He became the self-engendered Creator God. Evidence indicates that the construction of the temple complex at Luxor and Karnak may have started as early as the Middle Kingdom (c.2055 – c.1650 BC), although the buildings visible today date from the reign of Amenhotep III (c.1390 – c.1352 BC), the great temple builder of the 18th Dynasty. 

Statues of different Pharaohs at the Karnak Temple, Egypt
Fig 3: Statues of different Pharaohs at the Karnak Temple, Egypt. Credit: Bibhu Dev Misra
The obelisk of Hatshepsut at the Karnak Temple, Egypt
Fig 4: The obelisk of Hatshepsut at the Karnak Temple, Egypt. Credit: Bibhu Dev Misra
What could have triggered Amun's precipitous rise to the head of the Egyptian pantheon from relative obscurity as a deity of the Primeval Ocean? How did a whole new pantheon of deities, along with associated symbolism, rites, and rituals spring up in Egypt during the New Kingdom? 

The Opet Festival

I was also highly intrigued by the descriptions of the annual Opet festival that used to be celebrated in Karnak, during the season of the flooding of the Nile. In this grand festival, the idols of the Theban triad of divinities - Amun, Mut and Khonsu - were placed on sacred barques (boats), which were carried in a splendid, joyous procession down the Avenue of the Sphinxes, along the 2 mile road that connects the temples of Karnak and Luxor. 
The Avenue of the Sphinxes which connects the temples of Karnak and Luxor.
Fig 5: The Avenue of the Sphinxes which connects the temples of Karnak and Luxor. Credit: Bibhu Dev Misra
The celebrations have been depicted in detail on the walls of the Great Colonnade at Luxor. At Karnak, the idols of the Thebian triad were first ceremoniously washed and magnificently dressed with colorful linen and precious jewellery and placed on sacred barques. The pharaoh then offered his obeisance to each of the barques. The barques were then carried by the priests on their shoulders, accompanied by musicians, and soldiers carrying standards decorated with brilliant plumes and streamers. Elegantly decorated horse drawn chariots would also accompany the procession. Huge crowds of people gathered along the road, blowing trumpets, dancing and singing, clapping, offering prayers, burning incense sticks and generally raising a tremendous din. Nubian musicians and female acrobats entertained the crowd. The barques rested along the way at six way-stations that were built by Queen Hatshepsut.

Once the idols reached Luxor Temple, the coronation rites of the king were repeated in a sacred ritual, which effectively transferred the power of divine rulership from Amun to the pharaoh. The idols rested in Luxor for a period of time and subsequently came back to Karnak, in another procession along the river Nile. Although the Opet festival was initially celebrated over only 11 days, later it was extended to nearly 24 to 27 days. The festival not only symbolized a restoration of the divine right of the king to rule, but also signified a rejuvenation of the creative forces of the cosmos, through the sacred rituals and boisterous celebrations. 

The Opet Festival of ancient Egypt
Fig 6: The Opet Festival. Source:
Jagannath Ratha Yatra

Amazingly enough, an exactly similar festival is still celebrated every year in the coastal town of Puri, in the state of Orissa in eastern India, after the onset of monsoon in the month of July. Here, in the yearly Ratha Yatra festival, the idols of Krishna (or Jagannath), his brother Balaram and his sister Subhadra are carried in three magnificent chariots pulled by thousands of devotees along the 2 km (1.5 mile) road that connects the Jagannath Temple to the Gundicha Temple.

I had the good fortune of being able to witness this grand spectacle in the year 2010. An immense collection of humanity had descended on Puri on this day from all over India. The actual festival, of course, had started nearly two weeks earlier when the idols of Krishna, Balaram and Subhadra were given a ritual bath and redecorated. On the day of the Ratha Yatra, the idols were installed on the three massive chariots, nearly 45 feet high, which had been constructed for the three deities. The chariots were kept outside the Jagannath Temple walls, and the endless stream of devotees blew conch-shells and played trumpets as soon as the idols were brought out of the temple on decorated palanquins and placed on their respective chariots.

Then the King of Puri paid his obeisance to each of the chariots. He sprinkled sacred water on the chariots, and swept the chariots clean with his golden broom. The chariots then started making their way along the Grand Avenue one by one, pulled by ropes by the thousands of devotees. 

Needless to say, a considerable din ensured. There was loud chanting and singing, beating of drums and blaring of trumpets, as the procession slowly made its way to the Gundicha Temple. The chariots stopped at many points along the way, in order to provide an opportunity to the devotees to catch a glimpse of the idols inside the chariot and offer their prayers. It is said that one who observes the face of Jagannath during the Ratha Yatra festival gets absolved of all past sins. I did not accompany the procession the entire way to the Gundicha Temple. But what happens is that, after the procession reaches the Gundicha Temple, the idols rest there for a period of 7 days. After this they return back to the Temple of Jagannath, in another joyous, noisy procession known as the Ulta-Rath. The entire celebration, starting from day of Jagannath’s bathing ceremony, till his return from the Gundicha Temple, lasts for 25-26 days, nearly the same as the Opet festival of Karnak and Luxor.

The similarities between these two ancient festivals are obvious and striking. There can be no doubt that the Opet festival of Karnak is identical in form and spirit to the Ratha Yatra festival of Puri.
The chariot of Subhadra being pulled along the Grand Road by the devotees at the Rathayatra Festival, Puri
Fig 7: The chariot of Subhadra being pulled along the Grand Road by the devotees at the Rathayatra Festival, Puri. Image Credit: Bibhu Dev Misra
Although in the Jagannath Ratha Yatra, the idols are carried in large chariots, as opposed to the barques used in the Opet Festival, we should remember that the idols are brought out of the temple on decorated palanquins carried on the shoulders of the temple priests, before they are mounted on their respective chariots. It is possible, therefore, that in the olden days the idols were carried on palanquins all the way to the Gundicha Temple, and the chariots were a more recent addition.

In fact, during the annual Dol Yatra festival (Holi) the utsav murti of Jagannath is carried around the city on a decorated palanquin accompanied by musical troupes. All over India, during specific festivals, there is a continuing tradition of placing the utsav murti (i.e. the idols used during festivals) of the presiding deity of the temple on a decorated palanquin, and carrying it around the town in a joyous procession.

The flower decorated palanquin (poo-pallakku) of goddess Meenakshi taken out in a procession in the evening of 10th day of the Chithirai festival
Fig 8: The flower decorated palanquin (poo-pallakku) of goddess Meenakshi taken out in a procession in the evening of 10th day of the Chithirai festival – when Goddess Meenakshi weds Lord Sundareswarar. Source:
The worship of the Theban triad of divinities – Amun, Mut and Khonsu – was established at Thebes only at the beginning of the New Kingdom in c.1550 BC.  On the other hand, the festival of Ratha Yatra has been celebrated in India for thousands of years, although the current Temple of Jagannath dates from the 12th century AD. The festival has been mentioned in multiple Puranas, which are historical documents of unknown antiquity. The Skanda Purana states that the first Jagannath Temple was established in the Satya Yuga i.e. Golden Age (which could have begun at around 12,600 BC). Since Jagannath refers to Vishnu - the Lord of the Universe - he was worshipped in different forms in the different yugas. In the Kali Yuga he is worshipped in the form of Krishna. In many other Sanskrit texts such as the Narada Purana, Padma Purana and the Ramayana, the virtues of worshipping Jagannath have been extolled.

That implies that this ancient festival, along with the triad of divinities - Krishna, Balaram and Subhadra – must have been transferred from India to Egypt, sometime prior to 1550 BC.

Amun, Khonsu and Mut (from left to right) being worshiped by the Pharaoh
Fig 9: Amun, Khonsu and Mut (left to right) Source:
Krishna, Subhadra and Balarama (from right to left)
Fig 10: Krishna, Subhadra and Balarama (right to left). Source: Wikipedia
Migration from India?

I wondered what historical factors could have led to the transfer of an entire patheon of deities, along with associated ceremonies and rituals, from India to Egypt. Since Amun was the head of the state pantheon at Egypt, it occured to me that this pantheon transfer would have been possible only through express royal patronage. When and why did this happen? Who all were involved?

Historians have pointed out that Indian traders had trade relations with the first Pharaohs of dynastic Egypt in 3000 BC, and sold them cotton, muslin, spices, myrrh, incense, gold and ivory. The ancient maritime trade routes, popularly known as the Silk Route, led from Egypt in a south-east direction, to the flourishing ports on the western and eastern coasts of India. Along these ancient routes, Egyptian and Indian ships plied back and forth since unknown antiquity, carrying precious objects of trade.
The Silk Route, both overland and maritime
Fig 8: The Silk Route. Source: Wikipedia
Could traders have played a part in the transfer of this religious tradition? According to historian Arnold Hermann Ludwig Heeren, this is the most likely scenario. In his book Historical Researches, Volume 4, 1847 he has observed that: 
 “It is perfectly agreeable to Hindu manners that colonies from India, i.e., Banian families should have passed over Africa, and carried with them their industry, and perhaps also their religious worship. Whatever weight may be attached to Indian tradition and the express testimony of Eusebius confirming the report of migrations from the banks of the Indus into Egypt, there is certainly nothing improbable in the event itself, as a desire of gain would have formed a sufficient inducement.”
In addition to trading groups, there is the very interesting issue of migrations from the banks of the Indus to Ethiopia. It was widely in the ancient times accepted that Indians had colonized Ethiopia. The earliest Ethiopian tradition says that they came from a land situated near the mouth of the Indus, and this has been confirmed by the testimony of Eusebius and Philostratus. In the seventh century, St. Isidore made a summary in his Encyclopedia of knowledge derived from ancient Greek and Latin authors, many of whose works have now disappeared. Regarding the Ethiopians, he says in his Etymologiarium (IX.2.128): “They came in ancient times from the River Indus, established themselves in Egypt between the Nile and the sea, towards the south, in the equatorial regions.”  

In fact the Egyptians also claimed that their ancient homeland was in a far-off place called Punt. Col. Henry Steel Olcott, a former president of the Theosophical Society, identified Punt with India and wrote in The Theosophist (March 1881) that, 

“by the pictorial hieroglyphic inscription found on the walls of the temple of the Queen Haslitop (Hatshepsut) at Der-el-babri, we see that this Punt can be no other than India. For many ages the Egyptians traded with their old homes, and the reference here made by them to the names of the Princes of Punt (King Parahu and Queen Ati) and its fauna and flora, especially the nomenclature of various precious woods to be found but in India, leave us scarcely room for the smallest doubt that the old civilization of Egypt is the direct outcome of that the older India.”
Many questions are raised here. If Punt is India, then when did the ancient Egyptians migrate to the shores of the Nile from Punt? What event could have led the Indus inhabitants to journey so far away from their homeland? How did the worship of Krishna-Balaram-Subhadra along with the festival of Ratha Yatra become established in Thebes at the beginning of the New Kingdom in c.1550 BC?

Clearly, there is much we do not know regarding the origins of the Egyptian civilization and the role that trade and migrations have played over thousands of year in taking culture and traditions to distant parts of the globe. Something very interesting, and hitherto unexplored, appears to have taken place in Egypt at the beginning of the New Kingdom in c.1550 BC, as a result of which the worship of Amun-Mut-Khonsu became the state religion, and Amun was elevated to the head of the Egyptian pantheon. This is a subject that needs to be researched in more detail.

PS: In a subsequent article, I have explored the historical events that led to the transfer of the worship of Jagannath-Balaram-Subhadra from India to Egypt: The journey of Jagannath from India to Egypt: The Untold Saga of the Kushites

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Bibhu Dev Misra

Independent researcher and writer on ancient mysteries, cultural connections, cosmic wisdom, religion and science. Graduate of IIT and IIM with two decades of work experience in different fields

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36 comments so far,Add yours

  1. Very interesting article...thanks for posting!

  2. Sir, you are a genius. Please continue your good work and I hope to see more work from you more frequently. Very nicely researched topic!

    1. Thanks. I will surely keep researching and writing on similar topics.

    2. In order to find correct links between the present and ancient country names I would suggest you study Maha Bharat, the history of the great(er) India. You will find many names like gandhar (now knows as khandahar) and so on in there. The point is, Punt was not India but India was much bigger than what it is now, known as Bharat Varsh, and so many of today's countries were part of that Bharat Varsh ruled by Kind Yudhisthira. Punt that you refer to could be a part of India. One side point - only less intelligent people, brainwashed by western scholars call Maha Bharat a mythology. Hare Krishna

    3. Thanks for your feedback. Yes, I agree that Punt does not refer to India as a whole but to some specific part of India (possibly on the western coast, although I am not certain about it). Regarding the Mahabharata, it is an amazing text, and there is much to learn from it by everybody.

  3. Although Egyptian happenings are noticed around 1500 BC, there are similar reflections in Hellenic civilisation around 400 BC and perhaps earlier.

    In the early centuries preceding and succeeding the Christian era, the entry of foreign tribes into India produced a favourable impact on the cults of Vaisnvaite and Saivite divinities, which, on the whole, enjoyed the support of the foreigners. The Greeks identified Krsna with Herakles and Sankarsana with Dionysos, and it is no wonder that they were favourably inclined to their worship. The Besnagar inscription describes the Greek ambassador Heliodorus as a Bhagavata who dedicated a Garuda banner to Lord Vasudeva. This is around 100 BC.

    A little earlier than that Megasthenes is reported to have said "This Herakles is held in especial honour by Sourasenoi, an Indian tribe who possess two large cities Mathora and Cleisobora and through whose country flows a navigable river called Iobares." Herakles has been identified with Vasudeva Krsna and Sourasenoi with the Surasena Yadavas.

    The people of Marathon worship both those who died in the fighting, calling them 'heroes,' and [a semi-divine being called] 'Marathon,' from whom the country derives its name, but also Heracles . . . . They say also that a man took part in the battle who looked and was dressed like a farmer. He slaughtered many of the Persians with his plowshare, and when everything was over he disappeared. But when the Athenians consulted the oracle, the god would not tell them anything except to honor 'Echetlaeus' [i.e. the man with the plowshare] as a hero." This sounds uncannily close to Balarama, The elder brother to Krishna.

    the worship of Sankarsana appears to have been quite popular in the fourth century BCE and Megasthenes seems to refer to him. The Greek writer referring to Dionysos clearly states that the Indians speak of three individuals of this name appearing in different ages and they assign suitable achievements to each of these. The oldest of these was Indos, apparently the same as Indra, "who crushed grapes and discovered the use of the properties of wine." He further states that Dionysos also found out the method of growing figs and other fruit trees and taught this knowledge to others whence he was called Lenaios. This may be a corruption of Lingayasas or Lingin, a name for Siva. The third god spoken of in this context is Katapogon; and Megasthenes states that he was so named because it is a custom among Indians to grow their beards with great care. Katapogon is evidently the same as Kapardin, meaning one wearing braided and matted hair. The epithet is usually applied to Siva, but it may have been applied to Sankarsana also since the worshippers of Sankarsana, as we have noted earlier, wore braided (jatila) hair.

    The description eminently suits the agricultural divinity Sankarsana, the wielder of the plough, with the fan-palm as his emblem. Arrian also writes that according to the Indians, Dionysos was earlier than Herakles by fifteen generations; and, as Herakles is generally identified with Vasudeva-Krsna in the popular mythology of the fourth century B.C., the Krishna and Baladeva legends had not yet acquired the final shape in which they are presented to us in the Mahabharata and the Puranas."

    From ‘Pausanias, Description of Greece’, 1.32.4, quoted in George Luck’s ‘Arcana Mundi: Magic and the Occult in the Greek and Roman Worlds’. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, (1985)

    1. Hi,
      Thanks for your inputs. I want to point out that Heracles has also been identified with Sankarsana (Balarama), while Dionysus has been identified with Rama by Sir William Hones.

      Colonel James Tod, who was an officer of the British East India Company and an Oriental scholar, wrote in the book “Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan” (1829):

      “How invaluable such remnants of ancient race of Harikula! How refreshing to the mind yet to discover, amidst the ruins on the Yamuna, Hercules (Baldeva, god of strength) retaining his club and lion's hide, standing on his pedestal at Baldeo, and yet worshipped by Suraseni! This was the name (Baldeo) given to a large tract of country round Mathura, or rather round Surpura, the ancient capital founded by Surasena, the grandfather of the Indian brother-deities, Krishna and Baldeva, Apollo and Hercules. The title would apply to either; though Baldeva has the attributes of 'god of strength'. Both are es (lords) of the race (kula) of Hari (Hari-kul-es), of which the Greeks might have made the compound Hercules. Might not a colony after the Great War have migrated westward?”

      In his essay “On the Gods of Greece, Italy and India” (1784), Sir William Jones deems Rama to be the same as the Grecian Dionysos, who is said to have conquered India with an army of satyrs, commanded by Pan; and Rama was also a mighty conqueror, and had an army of large monkeys or satyrs, commanded by Maruty (Hanuman), son of Pavan.
      Just as Rama was a chakravartin-king, Dionysus was also regarded as a Zagreus i.e.chakra or chakravartin. Rama also had braided/matter hair, he took all the arts of civilization - argiculture, music, dance, sculpture etc - to different parts of the world, and according to puranic accounts he was nearly 25 generations before Krishna / Balarama (which is quite close to the 15 generations mentioned in Greek accounts).

    2. Heracles was definitely derived from Hari as heracles ruled over methora and Hari(or Krishna) over Mathura.Heracles ruled over Sourasenoi and Krishna over Shurasenas. Also in his childhood heracles had killed a snake which was an attempt by hera to kill him but this incident is definitely inspired from the killing of aghasura by Krishna.

    3. Hi Sidhant,
      According to Colonel Todd, Hercules is derived from Hari-kula-es i.e. es (lord) of the race (kula) of Hari (Hari-kula-es). Both Krishna and Balarama satisfy this description. Also, both of them were rulers of Mathura and belonged to the Shurasena tribe. In fact, Balarama being the elder brother was more likely to have been the official "ruler".
      In terms of iconography, Hercules is shown with a club and a bowl of wine, and Balarama too is depicted with a mace or plough, and it is known that he was very fond of drinking.
      From a mythic standpoint, however, the ten labours of Hercules can be associated with both Balarama and Krishna. In my opinion, therefore, Hercules was a representation of Balarama, who had also imbibed certain characteristics of Krishna.

    4. Interesting conversation but Id like to mention Krsna and Balaram advented 3000 BC at the start of kali yuga 5000 yrs ago, this fact should be established, as it is essential to avoid previous racist attempts to minimize India's historical significance in the scheme of world events. Its a shame to hear today in our modern world, history being pushed into the square hole created by self interested racist foreigners, Vedic culture was a world wide culture easily over 5000 yrs old, previous attempts to date it as being 400 Bc are ridiculous and a continuing attack on India's and the worlds actual history by racists and religious fanatics. Also If we admit our ability to study the whole material creation is limited due to inability to even detect 90-99% of it,"dark-matter" then we should keep a very open mind instead of referring to mahabharata as "myth". if you can only perceive 1-10% of whats around you, then you have no authority to establish what is and isn't reality, as our puffed up scientists and historians do.

    5. Thanks for your observations. It is true that information in the ancient Indian texts have been relegated to the realm of myths by modern historians. It is incumbent upon Indians, themselves, to come up with the correct interpretations and dates based on evidence from different disciplines - archaeology, astronomy, geology etc.

  4. Yes may be that has good possibility because at most places and more importantly in the Dasavatar Strota the 10th incarnation of Vishnu is said to be Balaram not Krishna as is common belief.But when Megathenes took the story to Greece, as Krishna is a more prominent character than Balaram he adapted some of his stories as well.

    1. Its interesting to know that the Dasavatar Strota mentions Balarama as the 8th avatar. Yes, I think due to Krishna's enormous popularity in India, Balarama has become overshadowed.
      I want to point out that Megasthenes did not take the story of Krishna-Balarama to Greece. The story had traveled to Greece much earlier. Megasthenes simply recorded his observations when he came to India as an ambassador to the court of Chandragupta Maurya.

      these images definitely show the similarities between the weapons of Balaram and Heracles
      The most amazing fact about the Rathayatra in Egypt that you mention in your article sir,is the ritual of "Chera panhara".That is definitely strong fact that the festival being celebrated in Egypt is definitely Rathyatra taken from shores of Puri.

    3. Thanks for the image links. The overall description of Hercules as a fair-skinned, powerful person carrying a club points to Balarama, and not Krishna (who is generally depicted as blue or dark-skinned, holding a flute or a discus).
      The Opet festival too is similar to the Rathayatra in many respects. However, I have argued in a separate article (The journey of Jagannath from India to Egypt: The Untold Saga of the Kushites) that the worship of Jagannath was transferred from the Indus Valley to Egypt by the migrating Kushites, after the cataclysmic events in the Indus Valley in c. 1900 BCE. The Kushites also settled in many parts of India, and brought the worship of Jagannath along with them.

  5. Interesting article; unfortunately, your analysis is somewhat erroneous. KMT influenced/conquered the region that includes modern day India. Hence, it would seem unorthodox for the conqueror to adopt the religious customs of their inferior captors. Sadly, your analysis fails to address this phenomenon.

    1. I am amused by your statements. Can you you please tell me on what historical / archaeological basis you have concluded that Kmt conquered India, or that the civilization of India is inferior to that of Egypt? I am very much interested in knowing your sources, if there are any.

      In the meantime please take a look at a follow-up article I have written on this topic titled "The journey of Jagannath from India to Egypt: The Untold Saga of the Kushites" where I have provided a wealth of historical and archaeological evidences to show that ancient Kush was colonized by the Kushite tribe which migrated from the Indus Valley to Ethiopia after the Indus Valley collapsed sometime around c.1900 BC, and the worship of Amun was carried into Egypt from Ethiopia. I think that the information in this article will be sufficient to change your misguided notions of history.

    2. Without claiming that Egypt civilization conquered India and that India was inferior to Egypt; I am wondering how come Egyptian sculpture of around 2500 BC and pyramids etc looks so much more advanced than anything we see in India or anywhere else at that time.
      Or am I wrong? They appear so otherworldly and much ahead of the time. Any comment in this respect will be appreciated. Just see this sample.
      Very interesting article.
      Egyptian sculptures even around 2500 BC looks so perfect and advanced than what we see anywhere else in the world at that time, or in Indus Valley or anywhere in India. I may be wrong though, I am not an expert. Or is it the great flood destroyed these sites globally everywhere?

      Just see these at this link

    3. It is true that the Bronze Age sculptures and temples of Egypt are in a better state of preservation than what we find anywhere else in the world. But we cannot take that as an indication that the civilization of Egypt was superior to those that existed elsewhere in that period.
      Towards the end of the Bronze Age, starting from around 1200 BCE, civilizations all over the world crumbled and collapsed in a heap, leading to a 300 year period of Dark Age, normally referred to as the Greek Dark Ages. In my article on the Yuga Cycle I have correlated it with the transition from the descending to the ascending yuga cycle.
      As a result, not much material remains have survived from those remote periods. The Indus Valley civilization, for instance, went through two separate periods of collapses - one in c.1900 BCE and the next one in c.1000 BCE. The cities collapsed due to a combination of earthquakes and floods, and were subsequently robbed of their remaining treasures. The present day archaeological sites are being dug up from under 20 feet of mud. Naturally, very little has survived. But, even then, it is evident that the town planning and water management technologies of the Indus cities far surpassed anything else that existed in the world at that period.
      In addition, material technology alone cannot be taken as the sole indicator of the greatness of a civilization. The depth and richness spiritual philosophy and yogic traditions of the Indus cultures, that has been handed down to us, is of immense importance, and continues to inspire and guide spiritual seekers even to this day. I am not aware of any other Bronze Age culture that has left behind such a rich legacy of philosophy and spiritual literature.

    4. Do u have Any idea about the total no. of times India was devasted/demolised/etc. by foreigners in the last 1000 years, compared to Egypt?

  6. Very interesting article... Great Research

  7. Different thought..! "If Punt is India" - I had read a article with the scientific proof that before 2.5 billion bc, there were a big continent called kumarikandam that connected Tamil Nadu, Sri Lanka and more extented.It is belived that Worlds very first human created here, worlds very first language spoken here. And it is Tamil. Because word "Kumari" is a tamil word meaning pure.And after many years this continent have been sunked due to tsunami any some lands got spereted and moved in different location.Its natural change or effects after tsunami. 1% of that continent is called as kanikumari district in India.And it is said that language like hindi,egyptian language,chines are orignated from tamil. My thought is there may be possibility that Punt might get seperated from Kumarikandam where all our ancestors lived before Tsunami.

    Here is one of the link I gathered information from:

    1. Hi,
      Thanks for sharing your thoughts on Kumari Kandam. There are many theories and dates around Kumari Kandam. From my perspective the most detailed and authentic research on this was done by Graham Hancock in the book "Underworld". So, if you are interested in this topic you can try to get hold of that book.

      Regarding the dates, according to Tamil traditions, as reported by N.Mahalingam (Chairman of the International Association of Tamil Studies) Kumari Kandam was inundated in a major eruption of the sea in c.9564 BCE. This is very close to the 9600 BCE date for the submergence of Atlantis, which raises the possibility that Kumari Kandam may have been Atlantis. Kumari Kandam suffered another major inundation at around 6000 BC when it was completely destroyed and all the literary and philosophical works were lost.

      So, I do not think that Kumari Kandam was a landmass from millions of years ago, or the birthplace of humans / language etc. I think it was a large island kingdom which was inundated a few thousand years ago, and a highly developed civilization flourished there, from where the seeds of culture spread out to different lands.

      Can Punt be Kumari Kandam? Yes it can, but we need some evidence to make that argument, which is lacking as of now.

  8. I have read in some text that Atlantis is Tripura...please look up on this.

    1. That sems unlikely to me since the Atlantis described by Plato was an island.

  9. I would suggest that the "Kushites" indeed did conquer "Egypt" (Mudriya, Land of the Mudra") and that the conqueror was none other than Kujula Kadphises. King of "Kush/Kushan/Cush." AKA "Yayati" he is the origin of the "Yeti." King of Hindu Kush...Kushan of Kalam/Sumeria and "Cush" of Upper Egypt.

    Let me first state you have done another remarkable job, well done indeed! First rate research.

    Now let me, if I may, make a few observations: the first ruler of "Egypt" that called himself a "Pharaoh" was "Akhenaton." So this statement: "...we know that Indian traders had trade relations with the first Pharaohs of dynastic Egypt in 3000 BC..." is not exactly accurate. They were kings, rulers, whatever, but not "Pharaohs."

    That is something that must be grasped to unravel it all, Bibhu.
    You mentioned "Amenhotep III" of 1390 BC-1352 BC. I happen to believe the evidence places him much later, however the point to be grasped is this: his mummy ("Thebanmummyproject" website) was found to be in a very ragged state in it's sarcophagus, but the cogent point is there were the remains of two birds buried with him.
    Curiously, his "Golden Horus" name, a royal title, includes a name you might recognize: "Garude." This is an accepted alternate spelling of Garuda. His "Golden Horus" name...the Hawk.

    Now, the temple of Soleb...has the inscription of Amenhotep III labeling "The Shasu of YWH" as his "great enemy." His enemy. It is clear that "Shasu" is the sanskrit word "Chasu"...aka "Children." The Children of YWH."

    And who was the ruler that followed Amenhotep III? Was it really "Akhenaton" or was it Tut? Was Tut the son of Amenhotep III that was murdered (the "X" on his cartouche indicates he was murdered)?

    I found a very curious image: "Akhenaton" wore a MASK. It is very clearly a mask. And moreover, he called himself "Pharoah." This is a S.E. Asian word, for a "lesser noble" than the king, a "Phra."
    Curiously...I have located a stone carving at a location in S.E. Asia that is very obviously "Akhenaton." Of this, there is no doubt. His face.

    Now look carefully again at this character...the Akha Naton. The Akha are linked to the "Karin" and "Min" Hilltribes. The long-necks...and tribes that used indigo to dye their clothes blue. This is the "Blue skin" depicted on these images of "Gods."

    Go look again at Akhenaton's freakishly long neck...and contemplate the recent article in archaeological websites of the discovery of CHILDREN being used by "Akhenaton" to build his 14 year hideaway in Amarna.

    Contemplate that "Yuya" the "vizier" of Amenhotep III allegedly was from "AkMin." Aka Min. Contemplate that his mummy shows a freakishly long neck, and that his right eye had been spiked through the forehead, popping it.
    Contemplate that those Chinese statues found in eastern China, a few with spikes in it's eyes, all wearing MASKS, had one wearing a very long "gown"/dress.
    Contemplate that I found a national park in S.E. Asia of "3000 B.C. rock drawings" showing the exact same image...of a person they call "Tang." he is "the shadow" of a "puppet" character called Nanta Lung."

    1. Lastly, contemplate that the sword found on Tut's chest was tested, and found to be from the "Nantan meteorite" that fell near the Silk Road in the Altai region of China/Russia. However, after I started posting the "curious oddity" of Tut being from "1300's BC" and the Nantan meteorite falling in 1500 AD...the Egyptian Antiquities authorities rushed to get it "retested" and now claim it is from another STEEL meteorite that fell, conveniently, in 1500's BC.

      The Akha Naton/Nanta Lung forged that sword...and that long "gown" is the protective leathers of someone casting a very hot molten fact, the Chinese statue is shown pouring with his very large hands. "Yuya's mummy has very large hands..."Longamanus" of the Greeks.
      This is Kujula Kadphises...the guy getting "spiked" on the Narmer Palette, allegedly of 3000 BC.

      However, the dead and beheaded comrades of Kujula are shown wearing SUITS OF ARMOR and the images of WEAVING SPINDLES OF S.E. Asia give it all away. That cannot be from 3000 BC. Those are soldiers of Cyrus the Great...exact same armor and faces. Faked stories to unravel...Bibhu...faked.

      The Akha are also famed blacksmiths/weavers of blue cloth. The "Acheans?" Why did Hollywood storytellers depict "Achilles" wearing blue clothes in "Troy?" He is the Akha Illi.
      And although not well-known, the last "pre-dynastic king" of "Egypt" did not die until 70 years before the third king of the FIFTH DYNASTY of Egypt. ("Abydos" by David O'Connor, professor and Egyptologist).

      The Ku Jula...The Catfish King/Kadphises...that called himself "Vishnu the blacksmith." Forging "celestial weapon"/meteorite for "Shu." The "God of the Wind"...the assistant working the BELLOWS of the "Agni" temples...all the way to Caral (Kerala), Peru...where archaeologists claim indigo was first used in 6000 BC...and then Egypt in 4500 BC. At Caral is a red & white stripped "Agni temple"...a forge.

      Yuya is YUYU/Yayati, the "Emperor of Puru." He is the Akha Nantan/Naton.

    2. This is the character, "Yuya" that is described in "CM 48" (Sumeria/Kalam) of "destroying and altering the sacred ancient wisdoms and creating fake icons, with malice in his heart" where the priest relating it calls him "the wicked teacher Lu." Lu is blind. I believe he is the person called "Bagoas" that invaded Egypt in the late 300's BC and stole the temple records, altered them, then sold them back to the priests. Bagoas also is claimed to have poisoned the entire royal Persian family ruling Egypt, and was allegedly "the lover of Alexander the Great." However...Bagoas is the name of several Indonesia kings...and a Hilltribe of Indonesia is called the YaWi."

      Bagoas is depicted with red hair, and a freakishly long neck. However, we know there is an ancient document of a treaty signed between "Alu Sandu", a prince of Willusa, and the Hittites.

      And the Chinese records state that a rebel military governor, named Alu Sandhu, invaded several towns during the Rebellion of the Eunuchs, and these records state he is called Alexander in the west. Bagoas is also a eunuch...

      Most curious thing: the national park where the rock drawings depict the same person on the statue found in China in 2013? Hollywood Storytellers used it to shoot the movie "Alexander" in 2004...coincidence?
      I found a temple with a huge ship next to it, an elaborate golden ship, with a one-eyed Buddha sitting on the throne inside it...about one hour from the national park and the Mun/Moon River. Less than a mile away was another temple, with a red-headed fair skinned rider on horseback.

      "Moon River, wider than a mile, I'll be crossing you in style (Golden boat), someday (invading it), and we'll follow the same, rainbow's end, my Huckleberry (red-headed) friend...Moon river and Me...."

      Yes, it is creepy, isn't it?

      Keep up the great work Bibhu. You teach more in one article than most students learn in 4 years of University "history" classes.

      Meanwhile, you can be sure "Yuya/Akhenaton" once lived with the Hilltribes of Burma, where the settlement of the Kshetrya has been FOUND and archaeologically proven. I suspect he lived in this region after being seek out the opium fields to dull his torment...did you know "Akhenaton" was said to have had opium fields in this region? Yes, it is well-established.

      I have found a statue, which I have on file, of of a white-skinned young man with blond hair, wearing a monk's robe...with a spike in his eye...I suspect he was called MAYA. Illu of Sais-On....Illusion. He was head priest of Lower Egypt in 1400 BC, according to a statue of him at Berlin's Egyptische museum (more photos I have)...he was the one that embalmed the dead royals.

      Meaning...he is the one that tried to keep a man, a non-royal, from "drinking the elixir of immortality"/being embalmed, and getting his EYE SPIKED when he blocked the neck of the bottle and had a straw jammed in it...a "Hindu" tale, isn't it??? The Precept of the Demons..."Hiran"/ Yuya's mummy.

    3. Thanks for sharing your interesting thoughts will take me a while to absorb the information and respond...please hold on till then. Great to know that you liked the article.

  10. Bibhu, it might be good that you start reading the latest papers on aDNA(ancient DNA) research which would help in knowing who migrated from where ! So far thousands of skeletons (mostly from europe and some from middle east) from different time zones and eras have been excavated and analyzed. We don't have samples from IVC area pre 1500 BCE but it's unlikely that the ethiopians migrated from there

    1. Tim, migraton models must be based on many other clues other than genetic factors such as archaeological, historical, linguistic, cultural etc. The migration theories that are currently being proposed are just that - theories - and in many cases there are a host of factors that are being overlooked, or not being considered deliberately, just like in the case of the steppe migration theories. It is no secret that colonial midsets are rampant in the academic community and many studies are simply propaganda or a repetition of outdated ideas. As more data comes in more, and more researchers from around the world become involved in these studies, many of the current models will be undoubtedly rejected. So, let us not treat current theories as sacrosanct, and use that to reject other ideas which have a lot going for them.
      There are strong cultural ties between India and Ethiopia, which I have further elaborated in a subsequent article, which is also supported by a plethora of ancient literary sources. I believe that the haplogroup J2 was probably taken by the Kushite migrants from India to Northern Africa, and subsequently to many parts of the Mediterranean. However, a more detailed study will be required to confirm this, and to identify other possible gene flows.

    2. "I believe that the haplogroup J2 was probably taken by the Kushite migrants from India to Northern Africa, and subsequently to many parts of the Mediterranean " --->

      Bibhu ji, there are only a few downstream subclades of J2a that's found in india (mostly downstream to J2a-M410 and J2b2). Had the migration of J2 been out of india, we would find more basal subclades of J2 but that's not the case, instead the basal clades are found near middle east, west asia and the mediterranean region . Moreover, we already have a roughly 9,000 year old sample in georgia whose Y-DNA is some clade downstream to J2. Any migration of J2 males out of india should be supposedly earlier.

    3. India has a large number of J2a and J2b subclades, and there are few other countries which has more basal subclades of J2. Here are the ones that are found in India:

      J2a4h(10).L24 L25, J2a4b.M67, J2a4b1.M92, J2a4c.M68, J2a4h2.M158, J2b.M12, M102, M221, M314.

      So, it could have easily originated in India. Another thing we need to remember is that a migration around 2000 BCE out of the Indus Valley need not have "introduced" the J2 haplogroup in Ethiopia or Crete, but may have simply increased the frequency of these haplogroups in these regions. Unfortunately, genetics does not have any answers to these issues of late mixing, and we have to rely on archaeological and cultural clues.

    4. Incidentally, India has the highest diversity of R1a1, so using your logic R1a1 must have originated in India and spread to Central Asia at around 3000 BCE, which coincides roughly with the Mahabharata War.
      This would mean that the Saka and Kushanas who came to India at a later date c.200 BCE were basically bringing back Indian genes back to India, and thereby did not alter the genetic profile. Makes sense to me.

  11. Yuya was Agni/Vishnu/Rama/Shiva-Shu...Osirs-Ausar/Azure. He had BLUE SKIN, and the photo from Thebanmummyproject website is crystal clear: