Note: This article has been published on the Graham Hancock website, Viewzone and Cakravartin. It has been translated into German, and published in the Nexus Magazine, vol. 44, December-January 2013. An abridged version of this article has also appeared in the Science to Sage Magazine, August 2012 issue.
Part 1: Unraveling the Yuga Cycle Timeline

A number of ancient cultures believed in a Cycle of World Ages in which we gradually descend from a state of spiritual perfection and material abundance to one of ignorance and scarcity. In ancient India, this was called the Yuga Cycle. The Yuga Cycle doctrine tells us that we are now living in the Kali Yuga; the age of darkness, when moral virtue and mental capabilities reach their lowest point in the cycle. The Indian epic The Mahabharata describes the Kali Yuga as the period when the “World Soul” is Black in hue; only one quarter of virtue remains, which slowly dwindles to zero at the end of the Kali Yuga. Men turn to wickedness; disease, lethargy, anger, natural calamities, anguish and fear of scarcity dominate. Penance, sacrifices and religious observances fall into disuse. All creatures degenerate. Change passes over all things, without exception.
The Kali Yuga (Iron Age) was preceded by three others Yugas: Satya or Krita Yuga (Golden Age), Treta Yuga (Silver Age) and the Dwapara Yuga (Bronze Age). In the Mahabharata, Hanuman gave the following description of the Yuga Cycle to the Pandava prince Bhima:
"The Krita Yuga was so named because there was but one religion, and all men were saintly: therefore they were not required to perform religious ceremonies… Men neither bought nor sold; there were no poor and no rich; there was no need to labour, because all that men required was obtained by the power of will…The Krita Yuga was without disease; there was no lessening with the years; there was no hatred, or vanity, or evil thought whatsoever; no sorrow, no fear. All mankind could attain to supreme blessedness. The universal soul was White… the identification of self with the universal soul was the whole religion of the Perfect Age. In the Treta Yuga sacrifices began, and the World Soul became Red; virtue lessened a quarter. Mankind sought truth and performed religious ceremonies; they obtained what they desired by giving and by doing. In the Dwapara Yuga the aspect of the World Soul was Yellow: religion lessened one-half. The Veda was divided into four parts, and although some had knowledge of the four Vedas, others knew but three or one. Mind lessened, Truth declined, and there came desire and diseases and calamities; because of these men had to undergo penances. It was a decadent Age by reason of the prevalence of sin.”[1]
And now we are living in the dark times of the Kali Yuga, when goodness and virtue has all but disappeared from the world. But when did the Kali Yuga begin? And when does it end?

The Kali Yuga Start Date
In spite of the elaborate theological framework which describes the characteristics of this age, the start and end dates of the Kali Yuga remain shrouded in mystery. The popularly accepted date for the beginning of the Kali Yuga is 3102 BCE, thirty-five years after the conclusion of the great battle of the Mahabharata. This is remarkably close to the proposed beginning of the current “Great Cycle” of the Mayan Long Count Calendar in 3114 BCE. 

It is generally believed that the start date of the Kali Yuga - 17/18 February, 3102 BC - was computed on the basis of the information in the Sanskrit astronomical treatise, the Surya Siddhanta, according to which the five “geocentric planets” (i.e. the planets visible to the naked eye) - Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn - were aligned to 0° of Aries (near the star zeta Piscium) at the beginning of the Kali Yuga.

However, modern astronomical calculations have revealed that, on 18 February, 3102 BCE, the five geocentric planets occupied an arc of roughly 41° in the sky. The longitudes of the planets, calculated using P.V. Neugebauer's Chronological Tables, show that Saturn's distance from Jupiter was 41°. This cannot be considered as a conjunction by any means. Far more spectacular "alignment" of planets has occurred in the preceding and succeeding centuries. 

Most importantly, the Surya Siddhanta does not ever specify that such an alignment of planets took place at the beginning of the Kali Yuga. On the contrary, the Surya Siddhanta explicitly states that this conjunction of planets at 0°  of Aries takes place at the end of the Golden Age (Satya / Krita Yuga). The text states: “Now, at the end of the Golden Age (Krita Yuga), all the planets, by their mean motion – excepting however their nodes and apsides – are in conjunction in the first of Aries.”[2]
Unfortunately, however, this simple statement was misrepresented by some of the early commentators, in their eagerness to find an astronomical rationale for the 3102 BCE date, and it has subsequently been promulgated as a fact.

The general understanding in ancient Hindu astronomy was that at the beginning of the present order of things, all the planets commenced their movement together at 0° of Aries; and all the planets return to the same position in the heavens, at certain fixed intervals, resulting in a universal conjunction. As per the Surya Siddhanta, this conjunction takes place at the end of the Golden Age.

Similar information regarding the conjunction of planets is also present in the ancient Greek texts. In the Timaeus, Plato refers to a “Perfect Year” which elapses at that moment when the sun, moon and the planets all return to the same relative position despite all their intervening reversals.[3] This idea was echoed by the 3rd century Roman writer Censorinus, who said that the orbits of the sun, moon and the five wandering planets complete one “Great Year of Heraclitus”, when they are brought back together at the same time to the same sign where once they were.[4] 
This “Great Year” which is known by various other names – “Perfect Year”, “Platonic Year”, “Supreme Year of Aristotle” etc. - was variously represented as being of 12,954 years (Cicero) or 10,800 years (Heraclitus) duration. 

There can be no doubt that the 3102 BCE date for the beginning of the Kali Yuga was not based on any information in the Surya Siddhanta or any other astronomical text. The date virtually pops out of nowhere. It is sometimes claimed that the date can be derived from a statement made by the noted astronomer Aryabhatta in the Sanskrit text Aryabhatiya, where he writes that:
 “When sixty times sixty years (i.e. 3600 years) and three quarter Yugas had elapsed, twenty-three years had then passed since by birth.”[5]
This means that Aryabhatta had composed the text when he was 23 years old and 3600 years of the current Yuga had elapsed. The problem here is that we do not know when Aryabhatta was born, or when he composed the Aryabhatiya. He does not even mention the Kali Yuga by name, and simply states that 3600 years of the Yuga had elapsed.  Scholars generally assume that the Kali Yuga had started in 3102 BCE, and then use this statement to justify that the Aryabhatiya was composed in 499 CE. However, we cannot use the reverse logic i.e. we cannot say that the Kali Yuga must have started in 3102 BCE since the Aryabhatiya was composed in 499 CE, for we do not know when Aryabhatta lived or completed his work.

Another source is the Aihole inscription of Pulakesin II of Badami, which was incised on the expiry of 3735 years after the Bharata war and 556 years of the Saka kings. If we take the beginning of the Saka Era as 78 CE, then the Bharata War took place in 3102 BCE, and the Kali Yuga, which started 35 years after the Bharata War, began on 3067 BCE. But we must remember that there is an Old Saka Era as well, whose beginning date is disputed, and for which various dates have been proposed by scholars ranging from 83 BCE – 383 BCE.
[6] If the Aihole inscription refers to the Old Saka Era, then the Kali Era starts a few hundred years before 3102 BCE.

The truth is that, there is no text or inscription which gives us an unambiguous date for the beginning of the Kali Yuga. There is no astronomical basis for the start date, nor do we have any evidence that Aryabhatta or any other astronomer had calculated the date. Before the 6th century CE, the date does not figure in any Sanskrit text or inscription. It could have been invented by later-day astronomers or adopted from some other calendar. The vagueness surrounding the origin of this very important chronological marker makes its validity highly suspect.

The Yuga Cycle Duration
The task of figuring out this date from the ancient Sanskrit texts, however, is fraught with difficulties, since a number of inaccuracies have crept into the Yuga Cycle information contained within them. In many Sanskrit texts the 12,000 year duration of the Yuga Cycle was artificially inflated to an abnormally high value of 4,320,000 years by introducing a multiplication factor of “360”, which was represented as the number of “human years” which constitutes a “divine year”. The renowned Sanskrit scholar and nationalist leader of India, B.G.Tilak had mentioned in his book, The Arctic Home in the Vedas (1903), that:
“The writers of the Puranas, many of which appear to have been written during the first few centuries of the Christian, era, were naturally unwilling to believe that the Kali Yuga had passed away...An attempt was, therefore, made to extend the duration of the Kali Yuga by converting 1000 (or 1200) ordinary human years thereof into as many divine years, a single divine year, or a year of the gods, being equal to 360 human years…this solution of the difficulty was universally adopted, and a Kali of 1200 ordinary years was at once changed, by this ingenious artifice, into a magnificent cycle of as many divine, or 360 × 1200 = 432,000 ordinary years.”[7]
However, certain important Sanskrit texts such as the Mahabharata [8] and the Laws of Manu [9], which scholars believe were composed earlier than the Puranas, still retain the original value of the Yuga Cycle as 12,000 years. The Mahabharata explicitly mentions that the Yuga Cycle duration is based on the days and nights of human beings. The Zoroastrians also believed in a Cycle of the Ages of 12,000 years’ duration. The Great Year or Perfect Year of the Greeks was variously represented as being of 12,954 years (Cicero) or 10,800 years (Heraclitus) duration. Surely, the Yuga Cycle cannot be of different durations for different cultures.

In the book The Holy Science (1894), Sri Yukteswar clarified that a complete Yuga Cycle takes 24,000 years, and is comprised of an ascending cycle of 12,000 years when virtue gradually increases and a descending cycle of another 12,000 years, in which virtue gradually decreases. Hence, after we complete a 12,000 year descending cycle from Satya Yuga -> Kali Yuga, the sequence reverses itself, and an ascending cycle of 12,000 years begins which goes from Kali Yuga -> Satya Yuga. Yukteswar states that, 
“Each of these periods of 12,000 years brings a complete change, both externally in the material world, and internally in the intellectual or electric world, and is called one of the Daiva Yugas or Electric Couple.”[10]
In this complete Yuga Cycle of 24,000 years duration, there are two back-to-back Kali Yugas – a descending Kali Yuga and an ascending Kali Yuga - as well as two back-to-back Satya Yugas. 
Figure 1: An ascending and descending Yuga Cycle of 12000 years constitute the 24000-year complete Yuga Cycle, as postulated by Sri Yukteswar. Credit: Bibhu Dev Misra.
The 24,000 year duration of the complete Yuga Cycle closely approximates the Precessional Year of 25,765 years, which is the time taken by the sun to “precess” i.e. move backwards, through the 12 zodiac constellations. Interestingly, the Surya Siddhanta specifies a value of 54 arc seconds per year for precession, as against the current value of 50.29 arc seconds per year. This translates into a Precessional Year of exactly 24,000 years! This raises the possibility that the current observed value of precession may simply be a temporary deviation from the mean.

The concept of an ascending and descending cycle of Yugas is not a proposition that Sri Yukteswar alone believed in. This idea is still prevalent among the Jains of India, who are one of the oldest religious sects of the country. The Jains believe that a complete Time Cycle (Kalachakra) has a progressive and a regressive half.  During the progressive half of the cycle (Utsarpini), there is a gradual increase in knowledge, happiness, health, ethics, and spirituality, while during the regressive half of the cycle (Avasarpini) there is a gradual reduction in these qualities. Each half cycle is comprised of six smaller periods, and together these two half cycles constitute a complete Time Cycle. These two half cycles follow each other in an unbroken succession for eternity, just like the cycles of day and night or the waxing and waning of the moon. 

The ancient Greeks also appear to have believed in an ascending and descending Cycle of the Ages. The Greek poet Hesiod (c. 750 BC – 650 BCE) had given an account of the World Ages in the Works and Days, in which he had inserted a fifth age called the “Age of Heroes”, between the Bronze Age and the Iron Age. In Hesiod’s Cosmos, Jenny Strauss Clay writes:
“Drawing on the myth in Plato’s Statesman, Vernant also claimed that the temporal framework of Hesiodic myth, that is, the succession of races, is not linear but cyclical; at the end of the age of iron, which he divides into two, the cycle of races starts again with a new golden age or, more likely, a new age of heroes, as the sequence reverses itself…Vernant himself offers a solution when he remarks that ‘there is not in reality one age of iron but two types of human existence.’ ”[11]
This is very interesting. Jean-Pierre Vernant, who is a highly acclaimed specialist in ancient Greek culture, clearly believes that the Cycle of the Ages reverses itself as per Hesiod’s account. Not only that, he states that the Iron Age has two parts, which corresponds exactly to Yukteswar’s interpretation in which the descending Kali Yuga is followed by the ascending Kali Yuga. We can surmise, in this context, that the “Age of Heroes”, which immediately followed the Bronze Age in Hesiod’s account, must be the name ascribed by Hesiod to the descending Kali Yuga.

The evidence from different sources supports the notion of a complete Yuga Cycle of 24,000 years, comprised of an ascending and descending cycle of 12,000 years each. This brings us to the question of the relative durations of the different Yugas in the Yuga Cycle, and the transitional periods, which occur at the beginning and end of each Yuga, and are known as Sandhya (dawn) and Sandhyansa (twilight) respectively.  The following values are provided in the Sanskrit texts for the duration of the Yugas and their respective dawns and twilights.

·         Satya Yuga (Golden Age): 4000 years + 400 years dawn + 400 years twilight = 4800 years
·         Treta Yuga (Silver Age): 3000 years + 300 years dawn + 300 years twilight = 3600 years
·         Dwapara Yuga (Bronze Age): 2000 years + 200 years dawn + 200 years twilight = 2400 years
·         Kali Yuga (Iron Age): 1000 years + 100 years dawn + 100 years twilight = 1200 years

Since so many inaccuracies have crept into the Yuga Cycle doctrine, as pointed out by Yukteswar and Tilak, we also need to question the accuracy of the relative durations of the Yugas mentioned in the Sanskrit texts. 

Yugas of Equal Length
Although the Yuga Cycle is mentioned in the ancient accounts of around thirty ancient cultures, as described by Giorgio de Santillana, professor of the history of science at MIT, in the book Hamlet's Mill (1969), we find very little information regarding the relative durations of the different ages within this cycle. This is quite surprising. Nearly all the accounts tell us that virtue and righteousness decreases as we move from the Golden Age to the subsequent ages. Some of them specifically mention that virtue decreases by a quarter in every age. However, there appears to be scant mention of the durations of the ages themselves.
If the duration of each Yuga decreased from one Yuga to the next, shouldn’t this important point also have been mentioned in these accounts?
In the few accounts where the durations of the Yuga are specified, we find that each age in the Yuga Cycle is of the same duration. For instance, the Zoroastrians believe that the world lasts for 12,000 years, which is divided into four equal ages of 3,000 years each
The Romaka Siddhanta (“Doctrine of the Romans”) was one of the five doctrines mentioned by the Indian astronomer Varahamihira (c. 6th century CE) in his treatise called Panchasidhantika. Varahamihira wrote that, in the Romaka Siddhanta, the duration of a Yuga is 2850 solar years.  This is very close to the Persian value of 3000 years.

Therefore, the durations of the four Yugas mentioned in the Sanskrit texts (i.e. 4800, 3600, 2400, and 1200 years) deviate from the norm. The duration of each Yuga, in this sequence, decreases by 1200 years from the previous one. This is an arithmetic progression which is rarely, if ever, found in natural cycles. This seemingly unnatural sequence raises the question whether the Yuga durations were deliberately altered at some point in the past, in order to give the impression that the duration of each Yuga decreases in tandem with the decrease in virtue from one Yuga to the next

Here is the most startling fact: Two of the most famous astronomers of ancient India, Aryabhatta and Paulisa, both believed that the Yuga Cycle is comprised of Yugas of equal duration! In the 11th century, the medieval scholar Al-Beruni had travelled across India for 13 years, questioning and conversing with learned men, reading the Sanskrit texts, observing the religious rites and customs, and had compiled a comprehensive commentary on Indian philosophy, sciences and culture. In Alberuni’s India, Al-Beruni mentions that the Yuga Cycle doctrine was based on the derivations of the Indian astronomer Brahmagupta, who in turn derived his knowledge from the Sanskrit Smriti texts. He makes an interesting statement in this regard:
“Further, Brahmagupta says that “Aryabhatta considers the four yugas as the four equal parts of the caturyuga (Yuga Cycle). Thus he differs from the doctrine of the book Smriti, just mentioned, and he who differs from us is an opponent”.[12]
The fact that Aryabhatta believed the four Yugas to be of equal duration is extremely pertinent! Al-Beruni reasserts this in no uncertain terms: “Therefore, according to Aryabhatta, the Kali Yuga has 3000 divya years….each two yugas has 6000 divya years…each three years has 9000 divya years.” Why would Aryabhatta subscribe to such a belief? Did he have access to sources of information that are lost to us now?

Surprisingly, it was not only Aryabhatta, who held this point of view. Another celebrated astronomer of ancient India was Paulisa, who had apparently earned Brahmagupta’s favor by supporting the 4:3:2:1 ratio for the duration of the Yugas. According to Al-Beruni, however, “it is possible that Paulisa simply mentions this method as one among others, and that it is not that one in particular which he himself adopted.”[13] This is evident from Paulisa’s belief regarding the Caturyuga (Yuga Cycle), as documented by Al-Beruni: 
“Of the current caturyuga (Yuga Cycle), there have elapsed three yugas i.e. according to him 3,240,000 years i.e. 9000 divya-years. The latter number represents three-fourths of the years of a caturyuga.”[14] This indicates that Paulisa believed that each Yuga was of 3000 divine years’ duration. He uses the same method while presenting his calculations for the duration of a kalpa where “he (Pulisa) has not changed the caturyugas into exact yugas, but simply changed them into fourth parts, and multiplied these fourth parts by the number of years of a single fourth part.”[15]
This clearly indicates that two of the most respected astronomers of ancient India, Aryabhatta and Paulisa, believed in a Yuga Cycle that comprised of 4 Yugas of equal duration of 3,000 divine-years each. However, their opinion was overshadowed by the contradictory view held by Brahmagupta. He railed against Aryabhatta and the other astronomers who held differing opinions, and even abused them. Al-Beruni says about Brahmagupta:
“He is rude enough to compare Aryabhatta to a worm which, eating the wood, by chance describes certain characters in it without understanding them and without intending to draw them. “He, however, who knows these things thoroughly, stands opposed to Aryabhatta, Srishena, and Vishnucandra like the lion against gazelles. They are not capable of letting him see their faces. ” In such offensive terms he attacks Aryabhatta and maltreats him.”[16]
We can now understand why Brahmagupta’s opinion finally prevailed over that of the other astronomers of his time, and it certainly did not have anything to do with the inherent soundness of his logic, or the authenticity of his sources.

It is time for us to stop standing in opposition to Aryabhatta, Paulisa, Srishena, Vishnucandra and others like the “lion against gazelles”, and instead take cognizance of the very real possibility that the Yugas in the Yuga Cycle are of equal duration, and the 4:3:2:1 sequence of the Yugas may have been a mathematical manipulation that crept into the Yuga Cycle doctrine sometime prior to 500 CE.  It is possible that this manipulation was introduced because people were inclined to believe that the duration of a Yuga should decrease in tandem with the decrease in virtue and human longevity from one Yuga to the next. A neat formula was devised in which the total duration of the Yugas added up to 12,000 years.
However, there was one problem. If the Kali Yuga is of 1,200 years duration, then it should have been completed many times over, since its proposed beginning in 3102 BCE. In order to circumvent this potentially embarrassing situation, another complexity was introduced. Each “year” of the Yuga Cycle became a “divine year” comprised of 360 human years. The Yuga Cycle became inflated to 4,320,000 years (12,000*360) and the Kali Yuga became equal to 432,000 years (1,200*360). Humanity became consigned to an interminable duration of darkness. 

The Saptarshi Calendar
The original Yuga Cycle doctrine appears to have been very simple: A Yuga Cycle duration of 12,000 years, with each Yuga lasting for 3,000 years. This cycle is encoded in the “Saptarshi Calendar” which has been used in India for thousands of years. It was used extensively during the Maurya period in the 4th century BCE, and is still in use in some parts of India.  
The term “Saptarshi” refers to the “Seven Rishis” or the “Seven Sages” representing the seven brightest stars of the Great Bear constellation (Ursa Major). In Vedic astronomy, these seven stars are collectively called Saptarshi Mandala, while in Western astronomy they are known as the Big Dipper asterism. They are regarded as the enlightened rishis who appear at the beginning of every Yuga to spread the laws of civilization. 
The Saptarshi Calendar used in India had a cycle of 2,700 years; it is said that the Seven Sages spend 100 years in each of the 27 “nakshatras” (lunar asterisms) which adds up to a cycle of 2,700 years. The 2,700 year cycle was also referred to as a “Saptarsi Era” or a “Saptarsi Yuga”.
Figure 2: The Great Bear or Ursa Major constellation. The seven bright stars are identified with the Seven Sages. A straight line drawn through Merak and Dubhe passes close to Polaris, the pole star. Credit: Sanu N, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons.
If the 2,700-year cycle of the Saptarshi Calendar represents the actual duration of a Yuga, then the remaining 300 years out of the total Yuga duration of 3,000 years (representing 1/10th of the Yuga duration), automatically represents the “transitional period”, before the qualities of the subsequent Yuga are fully manifested. In accordance with the current convention, this intervening period can be broken up into two separate periods of 150 years each, one occurring at the beginning of the Yuga, known as Sandhya (i.e. dawn), and the other at its termination, known as Sandhyansa (i.e. twilight). 

The total duration of the Yuga Cycle, excluding the transitional periods, is equal to (2700*4) i.e. 10,800 years, which is same as the duration of the “Great Year of Heraclitus” in the Hellenic tradition! This clearly indicates that the underlying basis of the Cycle of the World Ages in both India and Greece was the 2700 year Saptarshi Cycle.

It is agreed by historians that the Saptarshi Calendar that was in use during the Maurya period in the 4th century BC, started in 6676 BCE. In the book, “Traditions of the Seven Rsis”, Dr. J. E. Mitchiner confirms this: 
“We may conclude that the older and original version of the Era of the Seven Rsis commenced with the Seven Rsis in Krttika in 6676 BC…This version was in use in northern India from at least the 4th century BC, as witnessed by the statements of Greek and Roman writers; it was also the version used by Vrddha Garga, at around the start of the Christian era.”[17]
In fact, the recorded chronology of Indian kings goes back further than 6676 BCE as documented by the Greek and Roman historians Pliny and Arrian. Pliny states that, “From Father Liber [Roman Bacchus or Greek Dionysus] to Alexander the Great (d. 323 BC), Indians reckon 154 kings, and they reckon (the time as) 6451 years and 3 months.”[18] Arrian puts 153 kings and 6462 years between Dionysus and Sandrokottos (Chandragupta Maurya), to whose court a Greek embassy was sent in 314 BC.[19] Both indications add up to a date of roughly c.6776 BCE, which is a 100 years prior to the beginning of the Saptarshi Calendar in 6676 BCE. 

It is obvious from the accounts of Pliny and Arrian that they must have identified a specific king in the Indian kings list, who corresponded to the Greek Dionysus or Roman Bacchus, and whose reign had ended at around c.6776 BCE. Who could that have been? 
According to the renowned scholar and Orientalist Sir William Jones, Dionysus or Bacchus was none other than the Indian monarch Rama. In his essay “On the Gods of Greece, Italy and India” (1784), Sir William Jones “deems Rama to be the same as the Grecian Dionysos, who is said to have conquered India with an army of satyrs, commanded by Pan; and Rama was also a mighty conqueror, and had an army of large monkeys or satyrs, commanded by Maruty (Hanuman), son of Pavan. Rama is also found, in other points, to resemble the Indian Bacchus.”[20] 
Sir William Jones also points out that, “Meros is said by the Greeks to have been a mountain of India, on which their Dionysus was born, and that Meru is also a mountain near the city of Naishada, or Nysa, called by the Grecian geographers Dionysopolis, and universally celebrated in the Sanskrit poems.”[21]
Figure 3: The Dionysian “satyrs” are very similar to the “vanaras” who accompanied Rama in his war campaign against Ravana. Source: Collage of images from Wikimedia Commons
Both Pliny and Arrian were aware of these associations. Pliny had placed the Dionysian satyrs “in the tropical mountains of India”, while, 
“We learn from Arrian (Hist.Ind. p 318, 321) that the worship of Bacchus, or Dionysus, was common in India and that his votaries observed a number of rites similar to those of Greece…On this account, when Alexander entered India, the natives considered the Greeks as belonging to the same family with themselves; and when the people of Nysa sent the principal person of their city to solicit their freedom of the Grecian conqueror, they conjured him by the well-known name of Dionysus, as the most effectual means of obtaining their purpose. ‘O King, the Nyssaeans entreat thee to allow them to enjoy their liberties and their laws, out of respect to Dionysus .’”[22]
The identification of Dionysus with Rama provides us with fresh perspectives. According to the Indian tradition, Rama had lived towards the end of the Treta Yuga (Silver Age), and the Dwapara Yuga (Bronze Age) had started soon after his demise. This implies that the 6676 BCE date for the beginning of the Saptarshi Calendar, which is a 100 years after Dionysus i.e. Rama, indicates the beginning of the Dwapara Yuga in the descending cycle.
The Yuga Cycle Timeline
Taking 6676 BCE as the beginning of the Dwapara Yuga in the descending cycle, the 2700-year Saptarshi Yuga as the actual duration of a Yuga, and a 300-year period of transition between the Yugas, the entire timeline of the Yuga Cycle gets unraveled.
Figure 4: The Yuga Cycle timeline based on the Saptarshi Calendar
The timeline indicates that the ascending Kali Yuga, which is the current epoch in which we are living, will end in 2025 CE. The full manifestation of the next Yuga – the ascending Dwapara – will take place in 2325 CE, after a transitional period of 300 years. The ascending Dwapara Yuga will then be followed by two more Yugas: the ascending Treta Yuga and the ascending Satya Yuga, which will complete the 12,000 year ascending cycle. 

The Sanskrit text Brahma-vaivarta Purana describes a dialogue between Lord Krishna and the Goddess Ganges. Here, Krishna says that after 5,000 years of Kali Yuga there will be a dawn of a new Golden Age which will last for 10,000 years (Texts 49-61). This can be immediately understood in the context of the Yuga Cycle timeline described here. We are now ending the Kali Yuga, nearly 5,700 years since its beginning in 3676 BCE. And the end of the Kali Yuga will be followed by three more Yugas spanning 9,000 years, before the ascending cycle ends. 

Part 2: The Archaeological and Historical Evidence

As per the Yuga Cycle doctrine, the transitional periods between Yugas are always associated with a worldwide collapse of civilizations and severe environmental catastrophes (pralaya), which wipe out virtually every trace of any human civilization. The new civilization that emerges in the new Yuga is guided by a few survivors of the cataclysm, who carry with them the technical and spiritual knowledge of the previous epoch. 

Many ancient sources tell us of the enigmatic group of “Seven Sages” (“Saptarshi”) who are said to appear at the beginning of every Yuga and promulgate the arts of civilization. We find them in legends and sacred texts all over the world – in Mesopotamia, India, Polynesia, South America and North America. They possessed infinite wisdom and power, could travel over land and water, and took on various forms at will. The Saptarshi Calendar of ancient India appears to have been based on their periodic appearance at the beginning of every Yuga.

As we shall see, the transitional periods between the Yugas correlates very strongly with the severe cataclysmic events that regularly impact our planet, as reflected in the archeological records. In addition, the transitional periods are correlated with a number of important dates recorded in various ancient calendars and scriptures.

The End of the Last Ice Age
The first transitional period in the 12,000 year descending Yuga Cycle is the 300 year period at the end of the Golden Age from 9976 BCE – 9676 BCE. This is the time when the last Ice Age came to a sudden end in exactly 9703 BCE. Quite dramatically, in the span of a single year, the climate reverted from the glacial conditions of the Ice Age to the warm, moist, Holocene period that we live in now.
Many ancient legends refer to this time period. In the Timaeus, Plato tell us that the Golden Age island-kingdom of Atlantis sank into the ocean due to violent earthquakes and floods, in a “single day and night of misfortune” in c.9600 BCE. The Zoroastrians believe that the present world was created by Ahura Mazda 9000 years before the time of Zoroaster, who lived between the 7th and 6th centuries BCE. This indicates that, as per the Persians, the world was re-created by Ahura Mazda sometime between 9700 BCE - 9600 BCE.

The flood legends of many ancient cultures tell us of a global Deluge that occurred after the end of the Golden Age. These accounts talk of enormous walls of water that submerged the entire land to the highest mountain tops, accompanied by heavy rain, fireballs from the sky, intense cold and long periods of darkness. In the Indian tradition, this flood took place at the end of the Satya Yuga (Golden Age). The survivor of this great deluge was Manu, the progenitor of mankind, who is placed at the head of the genealogy of Indian kings.

In recent years, a team of international team of scientists found compelling evidence that the earth was bombarded by multiple fragments of a giant comet nearly 12,900 years ago, which triggered the start of a rapid and intense cooling period called Younger Dryas, which lasted for nearly 1200 years till c.9700 BCE. The force of the comet impact, combined with the vicious cold snap that followed, brought about the extinction of a large number of North American megafauna including wooly mammoths and giant ground sloths, and ended a prehistoric civilization called the Clovis culture – the first human inhabitants of the New World.[23]
Figure 5: Temperature changes during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene period, with the Younger Dryas period clearly marked out. Temperature graph based on Greenland ice core data. Credit: United States Geological Survey, Public Domain, via Wikimedia Commons.
The Younger Dryas period ended as abruptly as it started, for reasons not fully understood. Geologists from the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) in Copenhagen studied the Greenland ice core data in 2008 and concluded that the Ice Age ended exactly in 9703 BCE [24]. In an interview with the Danish paper Politiken, researcher Jorgen Peder Steffensen said that, “in the transition from the ice age to our current warm, interglacial period the climate shift is so sudden that it is as if a button was pressed.”[25] In a span of a single year, temperatures increased by 10 – 15°C in many parts of the world.

It is quite significant that the 9703 BCE date for the end of the Ice Age and the sudden climate shift falls within the 300 year transitional period at the end of the Golden Age from 9976 BCE – 9676 BCE, and as such, it provides the first important validation of the Yuga Cycle timeline identified here. As soon as the period of transition was over, civilizations began to sprout up everywhere. The megalithic culture at Gobekli Tepe, where the earliest layers have been dated to c.9600 BCE, is one such instance.

The Black Sea Catastrophe
The 300 year transitional period between the Treta Yuga (Silver Age) and the Dwapara Yuga (Bronze Age) extended from 6976 BCE – 6676 BCE and coincides with a significant environmental event: the Black Sea Catastrophe of c.6700 BCE.

The Black Sea once used to be a freshwater lake. That is, until the Mediterranean Sea, swollen to the brim with melted glacial waters, cut through the narrow land bridge at Bosporus and catastrophically flooded the Black Sea. Torrents of water had gushed through the Bosporus and plunged into the Black Sea at a rate nearly 400 times that of Niagara Falls. This raised the water levels of the Black Sea by several hundred feet, flooded more than 60,000 square miles of land, and significantly expanded the Black Sea shoreline by around 30%.[26]
In 1998, geologists William Ryan and Walter Pitman presented the Black Sea Deluge hypothesis in their book Noah’s Flood: The New Discoveries About the Event That Changed History. This catastrophic flooding event unleashed an apocalyptic scenario in the region, displaced the farming communities located along the shores of the Black Sea and fundamentally changed the course of civilization in Southeastern Europe and western Anatolia.
Figure 6: The Black Sea catastrophe, before and after. The water from the Mediterranean (Aegean) Sea, cut through the narrow Bosporus Strait, and plunged into the Black Sea, creating a gigantic waterfall. Every day for two years, 42 cubic km of sea water cut through the narrow channel and plunged into the lake — more than 200 times the flow over Niagara Falls. Source: NASA, Public Domain Image.
Similar major flooding events were taking place in many parts of the world, as massive glacial lakes, swelled by the waters of the melting ice, breached their ice barriers, and rushed into the surrounding area. Sometime between 6900 BCE – 6200 BCE the Laurentide ice-sheet disintegrated in the Hudson Bay and an enormous quantity of glacial waters from the inland Lake Agassiz-Ojibway discharged into the Labrador Sea. This was the single largest North Atlantic freshwater pulse of the past 100,000 years, which raised average global sea level by up to 1.4 m (4.6 feet).[27]
A number of very powerful earthquakes had rocked northern Sweden between 7000 – 6000 BCE, creating several kilometer-long “Endglacial Faults” (EGF). The longest of them is the Parvie (a Lappish word meaning, “Wave in the Ground”) fault, which, at 155 km, is the world’s longest known EGF. In some areas, Parvie resembles, “a 10m tsunami crest frozen in the rock”. It is possible that the global chain of cataclysmic events during this transitional period may have been triggered by a single underlying cause, which we are yet to find out.
The Comet Impact in the Indian Ocean
The 300-year period of transition between the Dwapara Yuga (Bronze Age) and the Kali Yuga (Iron Age) extended from 3976 BCE – 3676 BCE. The archaeological and geological records show that this was a time of massive environmental upheavals all over the world - primarily tsunamis and aridification events - which completely changed the course of human civilization. The period of transition was followed by the almost simultaneous emergence of the river-valley civilizations in Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Indus Valley at around 3500 BCE. 

The prehistoric Ubaid Period of Mesopotamia came to an abrupt end in c.3700 BCE, accompanied by a catastrophic flooding of the city of Ur near the Persian Gulf. After a gap of nearly 200 years, the early Protoliterate period emerged at around 3500 BCE. The African Humid Phase ended at around 3900 BCE, and by 3500 BCE sand dunes had started reclaiming the Sahara. The Gerzean Culture which emerged in Hierakonpolis, Upper Egypt, in c.3500 BCE laid the foundations for the cultural accomplishments of Dynastic Egypt.

In Eastern Arabia, the Arabian Bifacial and Ubaid period (c.4500 – 3800 BCE) was followed by the onset of extreme arid conditions. As a result, there is no evidence of human presence in the region for approximately 1,000 years, the so-called “Dark Millennium”. In Syria, mass graves at Tell Brak, dating from c. 3800 - 3600 BCE, have been unearthed, suggesting that large-scale violent conflicts occurred during this period.

The Holocene Impact Working Group, led by Dallas Abbot of Columbia University’s Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, have identified the 29-km wide Burckle Crater, located about 1500 km southeast of Madagascar and 12,500 feet below sea-level, as the signature of an impact event that took place in the Indian Ocean. According to the scientists, the impact triggered a mega-tsunami with 200 m high waves that created the chevron dunes found along the coast of southern Madagascar and Western Australia.[28]
Figure 7: The Burckle Impact Crater in the Indian Ocean (31˚ S, 61˚ E) is the most likely source for the chevron dunes of Southern Madagascar and Western Australia, and the sinking of Dwaraka and the flooding of Ur. Credit: Google Maps.
The radiocarbon dating of the largest Western Australian chevrons gives us a specific date for the impact-generated tsunami event: 3700 BCE.[29] This date falls in the period of transition from the Dwapara Yuga to the Kali Yuga from 3976 BCE – 3676 BCE.
This provides us with a strong basis to postulate that the submergence of the legendary golden city of Dwaraka, which had been built by the brother-deities Krishna and Balarama on the western coast of India, was probably due to the tsunami waves generated by the impact event at around 3700 BCE. The giant waves then, probably, traveled up the Persian Gulf and brought about the flooding of Ur. 

The great battle of the Mahabharata, which is said to have taken place around 35 years prior to the submergence of Dwaraka, and can now be dated to sometime around 3735 BCE. Interestingly, the year of World Creation in the Jewish religious calendar is 3761 BCE. Thus, a number of important historical dates are lining up within close proximity around this time.

The archaeological data from the Indus Valley indicate that period from 4000 BCE to 3500 BCE was a “transitional phase” between the Pre-Harappan and the Early Harappan settlements. After this period of Yuga-transition was over in 3676 BCE, almost miraculously, we see the emergence of new civilizations everywhere. The large Bronze Age civilizations in Egypt, Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley appeared almost simultaneously at around 3500 BCE.

The Greek Dark Ages
The Yuga Cycle timeline indicates that the 300 year period of transition between the descending and ascending Kali Yugas extended from 976 BCE – 676 BCE. This overlaps with the 400 year period from 1200 BCE to 800 BCE, known as the Greek Dark Ages, when a large number of cities across the ancient world were destroyed and burnt to the ground, never to rise again, and most of the cultural elements and religious institutions of the Bronze Age were lost forever. 

Historians regard the Greek Dark Ages as a period of transition from the Late Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age. Robert Drews writes that: “Within a period of forty to fifty years at the end of the thirteenth and the beginning of the twelfth century (c.1200 – 1100 BCE) almost every significant city in the eastern Mediterranean world was destroyed, many of them never to be occupied again.”[30]

This was one of the worst calamities in history that brought about a complete collapse of the Bronze Age civilizations throughout the Aegean, Anatolia, Cyprus, North Africa and the Levant, and plunged the entire region into a Dark Age that lasted for nearly four hundred years. In the Aegean, the palace-centered Mycenaean civilization disappeared and was forgotten until it was dug up by archaeologists in the 19th century. Almost every city between Pylos and Gaza was violently destroyed and abandoned. The powerful Hittite Empire of Anatolia, with its megalithic constructions and large, mobile, militaries vanished. The period from 1070 BCE – 664 BCE is the “Third Intermediate Period” of Egypt, when the Libyans and the Kushites claimed the throne, at a time of political turmoil, social disintegration, droughts and famine. In Southern Mesopotamia, many cities went up in flames, and the only ancient empire that survived to some extent was Assyria. 

The effect of this catastrophic collapse on the people and culture of the Eastern Mediterranean was far-reaching. There was large-scale depopulation and the people lived in isolated, small settlements. Famine gripped the lands, resulting in a mass migration of people. The construction of monumental buildings ceased. The pottery had simple geometric patterns – a far cry from the intricate, figurative decoration of Mycenaean ware. Iron replaced bronze as the metal of choice for manufacturing tools and weapons. The Linear B writing of the Mycenaean period was forgotten, and the Greeks had to re-learn the alphabet from the Phoenicians in the 8th century BCE. The ancient trading networks came to a grinding halt.
Figure 8: A map of the Late Bronze Age collapse in the Eastern Mediterranean. Credit: Lommes, CC BY-SA 4.0 via Wikimedia Commons.
The battle of Troy, and the subsequent destruction of the city of Troy, had been dated by many Greek writers to this time. Ephorus dated it to 1135 BCE, Sosibius to 1172 BCE, and Eratosthenes to 1184 BCE. In fact, the Greek philosophers generally thought of the Greek Dark Ages as a time when a “Shift in the Ages” took place from the Age of the Heroes to the Iron Age, which corresponds to the transition from the descending Kali Yuga to the ascending Kali Yuga.

However, this was not just a collapse of the ancient Greek civilization; there was a worldwide collapse of civilization during this period. In India, the Late Harappan phase of the Indus Valley civilization ended at around 1000 BCE.[31] After a gap of nearly 400 years we see the emergence of the 16 Great Kingdoms (Mahajanapadas) in the Gangetic plains at around 600 BCE, marking the beginning of the Iron Age culture of India.

Catastrophe also struck the Olmec civilization of Mesoamerica at this time. The center of Olmec culture in the early years i.e. around 1600 BCE, was at San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan. However, in c.950 BCE there was a wholesale destruction of San Lorenzo monuments. The site was abandoned at around 900 BCE, and the center of power shifted to La Venta soon afterwards. Mesoamerican scholars believe that drastic environmental changes may have been responsible for this shift in Olmec centers, with certain important rivers changing course.

When the ascending Kali Yuga began in 676 BCE, much of the knowledge, traditions, and skills from the descending Kali Yuga were forgotten. Possibly in response to this grave social crisis, a number of philosophers and prophets appeared at this time, trying to re-discover the lost wisdom, and spread it amongst the ignorant masses. Among them were Buddha (623 BCE), Thales (624 BCE), Pythagoras (570 BCE), Confucius (551 BC), Zoroaster (600 BCE), and Mahavir Jain (599 BCE). But much sacred knowledge was irretrievably lost. For instance, the original Vedas were comprised of 1,180 sakhas (i.e. branches), of which only 7 or 8 sakhas (less than 1 %) are remembered now. Various errors, omissions, and interpolations also crept into the ancient texts as they were being revised and written down. The mistakes in the Yuga Cycle doctrine were some of them.

The Yuga Cycle timelines proposed here accurately mirrors the worldwide environmental catastrophes that accompanies the transitional periods between Yugas. Every 2,700 years our planet is impacted by a series of cataclysmic events for a period of a few hundred years, which brings about a total or near total collapse of civilizations across the world. In every case, however, civilization restarts immediately after the period of destruction.
In recent years, many independent historians and researchers have realized that the concept of a Yuga Cycle is a far better descriptor of ancient history, than the model of linear progress favored by mainstream historians. Egyptologist John Anthony West mentions in his article “Consider the Kali Yuga” that:
“Since Egypt's Old Kingdom, up until very recently…civilization has been going down, not up; simple as that. We can follow that degenerative process physically in Egypt; it is written into the stones and it is unmistakable. The same tale is told in the mythologies and legends of virtually all other societies and civilizations the world over...Progress does not go in a straight line from primitive ancestors to smart old us with our bobblehead dolls and weapons of mass destruction; our traffic jams and our polluted seas, skies and lands. There is another, and far more realistic, way to view history. Plato talked about a cycle of Ages: Golden, Silver, Bronze and Iron (or Dark) Age; a cycle, a wave form - not a straight line. A similar understanding is reflected by virtually all other ancient accounts. The best known, and by far the most elaborately developed of these systems, is the Hindu, with its Yuga Cycle, which corresponds to the Platonic idea of four definable Ages.”[32]
It is evident that the Yuga Cycle used to be tracked using the Saptarshi Calendar. It was of 12,000 years’ duration, comprised of four Yugas of equal duration of 2,700 years each, separated by transitional periods of 300 years. The complete Yuga Cycle of 24,000 years was comprised of an ascending and descending Yuga cycle, which followed each other for eternity like the cycles of day and night. For the past 2,700 years, we have been passing through the ascending Kali Yuga, and this Yuga is coming to an end in 2025. 

In accordance with convention, the 300-year transitional period following 2025 can be broken into two periods of 150 years each. The first 150-year period -  the “Twilight of Kali”- is when the Kali Yuga structures may collapse due to a combination of wars, environmental catastrophes, and cosmic changes, while the second 150-year period - the “Dawn of Dwapara”- is the time when the spiritually evolved systems and philosophies of the ascending Dwapara Yuga may begin to emerge. It is likely, though, that the twin processes of collapse and emergence will progress simultaneously throughout the entire 300-year transitional period, albeit at different intensities. 

The rapid degeneration of our materialistically driven society into corruption, hatred and violence on one hand, and the current upswing in extreme weather phenomena on the other, may be indicative of the fact that the effects of the transitional period are already underway. We need to be aware of these greater cycles of time that govern human civilization, and the changes that are looming in the horizon.

PS: In addition to the Yuga Cycle, the Vedic texts tell us of a larger cycle of time known as the "Day and Night of Brahma" which extends over 24 million years i.e. 1000 complete Yuga Cycles. This cycle shows a strong correlation to the 26 million-year cycle of Mass Extinctions on our planet. I have discussed this in the article, "A Day and Night of Brahma and the Cycle of Mass Extinctions".


[1] The Mahabharata 3.148,
[2] Surya-Siddhanta, tr. by Rev. Ebenezer Burgess, ed. by Phanindralal Gangooly, University of Calcutta, 1935, p. 41.
[3] Plato, Timaeus,
[4] Censorinus, De Die Natali 18.11.
[5] Aryabhatiya of Aryabhata, ed. by Kripa Shankar Shukla, Indian National Science Academy, 1976, p. 95, Kalakriya Section verse 10.
[6] Richard Salomon, Indian Epigraphy: A Guide to the Study of Inscriptions in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and the other Indo-Aryan Languages (Oxford University Press, 1998) 181.
[7] Bal Gangadhar Tilak, The Arctic Home in the Vedas, The Manager, Kesari, Poona, 1903.
[8] Mahabharata 12.231,
[9] The Laws of Manu 1.69-71,
[10] Sri Yukteswar, The Holy Science, 1894, p xi.
[11] Jenny Strauss Clay, Hesiod’s Cosmos, Cambridge University Press, 2003, p 83.
[12] Alberuni’s India (AD 1030) tr. by Dr. Edward C. Sachau, London, 1910, Chapter XLII.
[13] Ibid, p 375.
[14] Ibid, p 376.
[15] Ibid, p 375.
[16] Ibid, p 376.
[17] J.E. Mitchiner, Traditions of the Seven Rishis, Motilal B, Delhi 1982, p. 163.
[18] Pliny, Natural History 6.59-60.
[19] Arrian, Indica 9.9.
[20] Encyclopaedia Londinensis, Vol 21, 1826, p 677.
[21] Sir William Jones, “On the Gods of Greece, Italy and India” (1784), Republished by J. Ghose & Co, Calcutta, 1876,
[22] The Edinburgh encyclopaedia, Volume 3, 1830, p 174.
[23] "Nanodiamond-Rich Layer across Three Continents Consistent with Major Cosmic Impact at 12,800 Cal BP", The Journal of Geology, 2014, volume 122, p. 475–506.
[24] Jørgen Peder Steffensen, "Determination of end of the Ice Age?" Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen,
[25] Danish Arctic research dates Ice Age,, 11 Dec 2008,
[26] Geologists Link Black Sea Deluge To Farming's Rise, New York Times, December 17, 1996
[27] Garry K.C. Clarke et al, “Paleohydraulics of the last outburst flood from glacial Lake Agassiz and the 8200 BP cold event”, Quaternary Science Reviews, 2004, Vol. 23, pp. 389-407.
[28] Dallas Abbott et al, “Largest natural catastrophes in Holocene and their possible connection with comet-asteroid impacts on the Earth”, March 2010,
[29] S. R. Scheffers et al, “The Holocene paleo-tsunami history of West Australia”, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 2008, Vol.270, No.1-2, pp. 137-146
[30] Robert Drews, The End of the Bronze Age: Changes in Warfare and the Catastrophe ca. 1200 B.C. (Princeton University Press, 1993) 4.
[31] Jim G. Shaffer, “Reurbanization: The Eastern Punjab and Beyond”, Studies in the History of Art, 1993, vol. 31, pp. 53–67.
[32] John Anthony West, Consider the Kali Yuga, March 2008,    
Share To:

Bibhu Dev Misra

Independent researcher and writer on ancient mysteries, cultural connections, cosmic wisdom, religion and science. Graduate of IIT and IIM with two decades of work experience in different fields

Post A Comment:

310 comments so far,Add yours

  1. I saw this fantastic article at the Graham Hancock website; many thanks for making it available for it adds some "sense" to this otherwise non-sensical world.

    1. Thanks. I'm glad that you liked the article and found it useful. The Yuga Cycle is the proper way to interpret our history. It explains the formidable technological and spiritual sophistication of the ancient cultures, as well as the frequent cataclysms that have impacted our planet.

  2. Hello

    There is intense discussion on a related topic here

    Its a take on migration Out Of India rather than Invasion from Aryans from outside. The discussion has ranged from texts to animals present in sub continent to time frames.
    It would be nice if you could participate and put forth your arguments there which would be helpful to the discussion.

    many thanks

    1. Thanks for sharing the link and inviting me to the discussion. I will definitely go through the diverse information that has been shared on this subject in the discussion board, and will express my thoughts on this topic as well. Thanks.

  3. Hi Bibhu, This was a very well researched and well written article, Thanks!
    I have for long been fascinated by ancient history and its really interesting how scriptures/religious texts can be looked at as historical documents too. Its an irony that even though we look at history as a great teacher, we discount the fact that our ancestors would have tried to record history to teach us!
    This has reinvigorated my interest and I would certainly look at reading more. Would watch your space too! Jayesh

    1. Thanks Jayesh. It is true that the ancient texts record historical and cosmological information, which can be interpreted with the aid of some of the latest discoveries in science.
      However, we must also remember that large chunks of information are missing, or have been fabricated, primarily due to the colossal loss of knowledge during the Yuga transitions.
      If we keep an open mind, and consider the information present in various ancient texts across religions and cultures, we will be in a better position to reconstruct our past.

  4. Yeah, right.
    It only seems like 435,000 years.
    That's the ticket.

    Srila Vyasdadeva is not amused.

    1. Not sure from where you are getting the 435,000 years...are you referring to the inflated value of 432,000 years for the Kali Yuga mentioned in some of the Puranas? Perhaps, you would do well to read the article where it has been pointed out that the actual value of the Yuga Cycle is 12,000 years which is mentioned both in the Laws of Manu and the Mahabharata, the latter being written by Veda Vyasa. So, kindly do not pretend to talk on behalf of Veda Vyasa, without being aware of the facts.

    2. Can you gimme references to thr verses in Mahabharara and Laws of Manu please

    3. I have provided the reference in one of my comments below (March 02, 2013). I am copy-pasting it here as well.

      There are a couple of Sanskrit texts - The Manu Smriti (Chapter 1) and the Mahabharata (Santi Parva), which specify that the yuga duration is of 12,000 years (and not divine years). The Mahabharta specifically mentions that it is 12,000 human years. Here are the relevant sections:

      The Laws of Manu, Translated by G. Buhler

      "69. They declare that the Krita age four thousand years; the twilight preceding it consists of as many hundreds, and the twilight following it of the same number.

      70. In the other three ages with their twilights preceding and following, the thousands and hundreds are diminished by one.

      71. These twelve thousand which thus have been just mentioned as the total of four ages, are called one age of the gods."

      The Mahabharata, translated by Kisari Mohan Ganguli, Book 12: Santi Parva

      "Computing by the days and nights of human beings about which I have told thee, I shall speak of the day and night of Brahman and his years also. I shall, in their order, tell thee the number of years, that are for different purposes computed differently in respect of the Krita, the Treta, the Dwapara, and the Kali yugas. Four thousand years is the duration of the first or Krita age. The morning of that epoch consists of four hundred years and its evening is of four hundred years. As regards the other yugas, the duration of each gradually decreases by a quarter in respect of both the substantive period with the conjoining portion and the conjoining portion itself. The duration of the Dwapara also is two thousand years, and its morning extends for two hundred years and its evening also for two hundred. The duration of the Kali yuga is one thousand years, and its morning extends for one hundred years, and its evening for one

      The learned say that these twelve thousand years constitute what is called a yuga. A thousand such yugas compose a single day of Brahman."

  5. Superb Research. Whatever may be the outcome in 2025, the scientific work done by Mr. Mishra is commendable. May God bless you. Keep on going my son.

    1. Dear Mr. Raju, thank you for your good wishes and encouragement. Regarding 2025, I do not think anything specific will happen on that date.It is more like a time-marker, indicating the beginning of the transitional period. If anything, the process of change should accelerate after that point.

  6. Hello Bhibu ji,

    Thanks for delivering an excellent article. I hope you don't mind, but I have cross-posted it on a forum - BRF. We are exploring the Dating of our Scriptures there and for the benefit for all those, who are participating there, I posted it there with all due credit. There are members there, who are also deep into dating Mahabharata, etc.

    You are of course most welcome to visit us and to participate should time allow you.

    Kind Regards

    1. Hello, thank you for sharing the article on your discussion forum. I hope the members will find it interesting and useful. I could not register for your discussion forum (since gmail is not accepted). However, I'll try to drop in from time to time to view the comments and contributions of the participants.

  7. Superb article Bibhu Dev ji, Congratulations for the same.
    I found article being refered at bharat rakshak fourm.

    By the way you also scared me to hell when you said that there happens a lot of calamities and destruction at civilizational level every 2700 years.
    From your article's image, 2700 - 676 BC comes at 2024 A.D


    1. Thanks Virendra. The archaeological evidence clearly shows a lot of destruction every 2700 years, but I do not think that it is something to be scared of. Even climate scientists are telling us that the weather patterns are going to get a lot worse in the coming decades, and we can see that seismic activities have also increased. Besides, if we are indeed going to transition to a higher age of consciousness then it is certainly a cause for joy and not fear.
      Regarding the 2025 date: In the Gregorian system there is no year 0 i.e. we go straight from 1 BC to 1 AD. Hence the ending of the Kali Yuga comes to 2025 (and not 2024).

  8. Bibhu Dev ji.

    I understand your point now.
    Requesting your permission to reference your article/post at a discussion forum (of course duly marking your name and url) -

    Thank you

    1. Hello Virendra,

      Please feel free to share the article with your friends on the discussion forum.

      Best, Bibhu

    2. Bibhu Ji,

      You've used Aryabhatta's date as around 500 C.E.
      I've found various dates for him, depending upon how the scholar interprets his verses. Here's one such, would like to know your thoughts.
      In his book Aryabhatteeyam, Aryabhatta clearly provides his birth data. In the 10th stanza, he says that when 60 x 6 = 360 years elapsed in this Kali Yuga, he was 23 years old. The stanza of the sloka starts with “Shastyabdanam Shadbhiryada vyateetastra yascha yuga padah.” “Shastyabdanam Shadbhi” means 60 x 6 = 360. While printing the manuscript, the word “Shadbhi” was altered to “Shasti”, which implies 60 x 60 = 3600 years after Kali Era. As a result of this intentional arbitrary change, Aryabhatta’s birth time was fixed as 476 A.D Since in every genuine manuscript, we find the word “Shadbhi” and not the altered “Shasti”, it is clear that Aryabhatta was 23 years old in 360 Kali Era or 2742 B.C. This implies that Aryabhatta was born in 337 Kali Era or 2765 B.C. and therefore could not have lived around 500 A.D., as manufactured by the Indologists to fit their invented framework.
      Bhaskara I is the earliest known commentator of Aryabhatta’s works. His exact time is not known except that he was in between Aryabhatta (2765 B.C.) and Varahamihira (123 B.C.)." The implications are profound , if indeed this is the case.The zero is by then in widespread use and if he uses Classical Sanskrit then he ante dates Panini.


    3. Hello Virendra,
      Thanks for sharing this interesting information. It is certainly possible that Aryabhatta lived earlier than 500 CE. However, we must also remember that the 3102 BC date for the beginning of the Kali Yuga is primarily based on the assumption that Aryabhatta composed Aryabhatiya in 499 CE. If this is not correct we do not have any specific artifact which gives the Kali Yuga date. The Aihole inscription of king Pulakesin gives a relation between the Kali Era and Saka Era, but the beginning of the Saka Era (78 CE)is itself deduced based on the assumption that Kali Yuga started in 3102 BC. Given this situation we can only say that Aryabhatta was born in 337 Kali Era, but cannot state the exact date in the Gregorian calendar.
      Having said this, I have some more questions. The author states that the "authentic manuscripts" mention "shadbhi" and not "shasti". Where is the evidence? We need to see a photocopy of the so-called authentic manuscript. It is difficult to see how such an important piece of information, which has been used for dating the Kali Yuga, could have been translated in error.
      We also have some evidence that Aryabhatta was born in Tarenga, Bihar and had moved to Kusumpura (Pataliputa i.e. Patna) later in life, where he became the head of an institution. Now there is no archaeological evidence of any urban settlement in the gangetic plains before 700 BC. In 2765 BC the focal point of the Indian culture was the Indus Valley civilization. Therefore, unless Kusumpura is a reference to an IVC city (which is unlikely, and unprecedented) the argument does not hold.
      On the whole, I am not convinced by the argument that Aryabhatta was born in 2765 BC. It is not impossible, but the argument is very thin, and not backed up by any valid verifiable evidence.
      Best, Bibhu

    4. Interesting.
      I am not an acquaintance to the author (Kaushal Vepa) so cannot offer more insight. I could only remind myself of a good book I read "The Plot in Indian Chronology" by Pandit Kota Venkatachalam. First published in 1950s.
      He touches various topics of historic and astronomic nature, including the Saptarishi calculation method.
      May be you'd like to read. The book is available for free download at
      I wonder where you two converge and differ. I'll go back to the book to find out.

      Take Care,

    5. Hi Virendra,
      Thanks for sharing the link. Looks interesting. I will surely go though it.
      Best, Bibhu

    6. Sir,
      I want to say something......I agree with what Virendra is saying......but he is miss manipulating....the fact....I think that Aryabhatta is speaking of the beginning of ascending Kaliyuga.....that is the cycle in the upward given in the article.....of started in 676B.C and aryabhatta said it had been 337 Kali era tahe means that he must be around 339 B.C......!please share your thoughts regarding me eagerly waiting..!!!

    7. Hi Devanshu, that is an interesting point. But lets us look at Aryabhatta's full statement. He said:

      "When 60 times 60 years (i.e. 3600 years) are gone, when the 3 quarters of the Yuga elapsed, It was my 23rd birth day".

      If 3 quarters of the Yuga is 3600 years (i.e. 60*60), it means that according to Aryabhatta the Kali Yuga was of 4800 years duration. On the other hand if 3 quarters of the Yuga is 360 years (i.e. 60*6) then it implies that Kali Yuga was of 480 years duration.

      None of the these two durations make any sense. According to Alberuni, Aryabhatta believed in yuga duration of 3000 years, while according to the Puranic texts it is of 1200 or 1200*360 years duration. A Kali yuga of 480 or 4800 years duration does not make any sense.

      This is why I believe that Aryabhatta was not talking of the Kali Yuga at all. He never mentions the Kali yuga by name, but instead talks of the current age. This appears to be a calendric system imported into India from outside, where the total yuga duration was of 4800 years, and which started in 3102 BC.

      If you assume that 676 BC was the starting point referred to by Aryabhatta then the Kali Yuga of 480 years would have been completed by 196 BC, and we would be close to completing the Dwapara Yuga by now. Obviously that is not acceptable.

  9. Humongous information. All belonging to field of my major interest.Had been looking for information and looking forward to more.

    1. Thank you Rijusmita. I'm glad you found the article informative.

  10. First of all let me acknowledge the fact that it takes lots of hard work to compose an article of this length, but the topic this article takes on is important one.
    Thanks a lot for putting all that effort and going through all the references.
    I consider myself a physic scholar (though I am not by profession). I have special interests in astronomy. I am always keen to learn about ancient Indian astronomy.
    Articles of this kind are always a treat to read for a person like me.

    I hope I can keep with great Indian tradition being constructively argumentative.

    There are a few instances in the article where there is either a factual error or fact not clearly explained and it appears as if a factual error has been made.
    Take following statement, for example.

    “The 24,000 year duration of the complete Yuga Cycle closely approximates the precessional Year of 25,765 years, which is the time taken by the sun to “precess” i.e. move backwards, through the 12 zodiac constellations.”
    Sun moves (apparent from earth) through 12 Zodiac in just one year and not in 24,000 years. Clearly “precessional Year” is not related with sun’s apparent motion in 12 Zodiac.
    To understand a precessional Year (or precessional cycle), we need to be aware that axis of earth slowly traces out a cone. The time taken by axis to complete this rotation is around 24000 years.
    That mean if I stand exactly on North Pole of earth, and I see a star right on top of our head. That’s where earth’s axis is pointing to.
    After 12000 years, if an observer stands exactly on North Pole or earth. He will not see same star of top of his head. But an observer after 24000 years will see same star on top of his head.

  11. To add to my previous comment, the error I discussed may not impact the conclusion of article.

    1. Hi Sandeep,

      Thanks for bringing up the topic of precession. As you mentioned, in a year of 12 months, the sun moves "forward" through the 12 zodiac constellations from Aries to Pisces. However, in case of precession, the equinoctial or solstitial sun appears to move "backwards" i.e. precess through the 12 zodiac constellations.

      The twelve constellations of the zodiac encircle our Solar System like a giant ring. As a result, the sun always rises each morning against the backdrop of a particular constellation. If you consider a fixed date on our calendar, say the vernal equinox date of March 21st, you will find that the sun rises against the backdrop of the constellation of Pisces. One would, therefore, normally expect that every year on March 21st, the sun will rise against the backdrop of Pisces. But that is not the case. In a couple of hundred years from now, the vernal equinox sun will rise against the backdrop of the Aquarius constellation. This is because of precession, because of which the equinox Sun appears to move backwards against the fixed constellations from Pisces to Aries i.e. ‘precess’ along the zodiac. This slow movement occurs at the rate of 1 degree every 71.6 years, such that an entire cycle of 360 degrees is completed in approximately 25,765 years, known as the ‘Precessional Year’.

      The vernal equinox sun takes nearly 2147 years to move through each zodiac constellation of 30 degrees. Thus the ‘Age of Pisces’, during which time the vernal equinox sun is in Pisces, extends from approximately 0 BC – 2147 CE. This will be followed by the ‘Age of Aquarius’ from 2148 CE – 4295 CE.

      Please note that the observed value of precession is 25,765 years and not 24,000 years.
      The value of 24,000 years is only specified in the Surya Siddhanta, which in turn has been correlated to the complete Yuga Cycle of 24,000 years.

      As you have correctly stated, the effects of precession can also be observed by looking at the Pole Star. Currently the North Celestial Pole of the earth points to the star Polaris, which is considered as the Pole Star, but almost 5,000 years ago the earth’s axis pointed towards the star Thuban in the constellation of Draco, which was the Pole Star during that period. Similarly, in another 6,000 years the North Celestial Pole will point towards the star Alderamin in Cephus, which will then become the Pole Star.

      According to astronomers precession is caused by a slow ‘wobbling’ movement of the earth’s axis as it revolves around the sun. The most commonly offered analogy is that of a ‘spinning top’ which slowly changes its tilt angle as it rotates. There is another theory known as the "binary theory" according to which precession may be caused due to a revolution of the solar system around a binary companion star. I will refer you to the book "Lost Star of Myth and Time" by Walter Cruttenden, where he has provided evidence that shows that the earth does not experience precession with respect to objects within the solar system, which implies that precession may be caused due to a curved motion of the Sun and the entire solar system through space. However, even the binary theory has many problems, which are too detailed to discuss here. As things stand, although precession can be easily observed, its cause is not yet fully understood.

  12. ...What a very well written article. I have it book marked

  13. Though I have not read entire article but seems interesting one. It requires WISDOM to write so and also to read so. I will be going through it soon.
    Even by reading it in summary form, I am developing POSITIVE VIBES in me. Thanks for That.

    1. Thanks Bhawin.I appreciate your feedback and compliments. I hope you will enjoy reading the entire article.

  14. Hi Bibhu,

    I read your article with great interest as I tend to think there is some truth in what is described, even though precise dating and durations are probably too uncertain at that point. But you make a good point in general. I have a comment about the transitions. You said that one can find calamities or cataclysmic events at every transition of the descending phase (last 12000 years or so). Did it ever occur to you that transitions during the ascending phase may turn out to be the "antithesis" of these calamities ?

    1. Hello,
      At a metaphysical level or the level of consciousness - Yes. In the descending phase every transition was characterized by an enormous loss of knowledge, and reduction in mental capabilities, whereas in the ascending phase it will be just the opposite - every transition will be accompanied by a sudden jump in consciousness, accompanied by higher knowledge and inner wisdom.
      However, I also think that this change in consciousness can be made possible by an influx of new energy, possibly through certain cosmic sources. Therefore our planet will have to "readjust" itself to this new energy, which will probably result in environmental calamities, and civilization collapses.
      However, in the ascending phase, it will be easier for people to deal with these earth changes, since we will be guided by a higher level of wisdom and understanding of what's going on.
      I would like to know your point of view on this.

    2. Hello Bibhu,
      I honestly have no clue about how this readjustment will look like. What I know is that the world seen as a physical system seems to follow chaotic patterns in the scientific sense (chaos theory). This would mean that we are entering pseudo-stable zones of the phase space (so-called "strange attractors") for a while and eventually, small fluctuations end up completely destroying that pseudo-stability when critical points are reached. The evolution is from then on very turbulent until a new pseudo-stablility zone is reached. It seems that the yuga transitional periods could correspond to the jumping from a "strange attractor" to another, with a lot of turbulence on the way. That is why I find this hindu perspective very fascinating :)

    3. Thank you! That was very interesting and informative. I was wondering - is it possible for a chaotic system to have an underlying cyclical pattern, like the Yuga cycle? And,in the context of the Yuga cycle, what do you think may be the factors which can create the initial "small fluctuations" that lead to the period of turbulence? Could they be something within the system (e.g. wars, social unrest etc.) or could they be external to the system (sun, moon and other cosmic sources)?

    4. Hi Bibhu,

      1- Yes, it is possible. Look at the climate patterns on a geological scale: chaotic but (pseudo)-periodic.

      2- any fluctuation of one (or more) of the phase-space dimensions. Because the system is highly non-linear, those can feed feedback loops (output becomes input to some processes). The whole thing here would be to define what this phase-space might be, by introducing some more "spiritual" dimension to it, without neglecting the physical. This dichotomy by the way seems quite illusory ... (cf. quantum duality - wave vs particle).

      3- fluctuations can be internal but also external. We are not a closed system and one must consider the constant input from the sun (radiative energy flux, cosmic rays), planetary system (gravitational fluctuations, radio waves, X-rays, etc) and more distant sources (galactic core, etc). Cosmic rays from the galactic core influences for example our cloud cover and therefore our global climate. Since the Earth belongs to the "galactic suburb" (one spiral arm) we travel quite a lot through the galactic volume and who knows what we go through on the way (regions with dense radiations, etc). And we do so in a periodic fashion.

      So I think there is much more to it than just internal (i.e. earthly) influences and we deal with cycles within cycles. It is very complex and our spiritual, social, etc. states must be very much influenced by all sorts of fluctuations that eventually destabilize the current equilibrium by reaching tipping points in the global phase-space of the Earth, whatever it might be.

    5. Thanks James for the detailed response. This is really very informative. I think this should be shared with a wider audience. I'm sure not many people are aware of this connection between the Yuga Cycle and chaotic systems. Has anyone written an article on this? If not, perhaps you can?

    6. Hi Bibhu. As far as I know, no one wrote anything on this because to be honest, it is something I have been musing about after I recently read some articles (including yours). I had known about the Yuga cycles and its supposedly arithmetic progression (4-3-2-1) but had never heard of the transitions being very turbulent. Reading you and other papers made me think about chaos theory and the pseudo-periodicity of many natural phenomena. I am not a chaos expert even though I have an advanced background in fundamental physics. I have evolved since my research years into a more holistic approach to certain aspects of reality and I found a lot of wisdom in Hinduism. Someone will have to dig deeper into a possible link between our spiritual state and its reflection / manifestation in the physical world. I wish I had the time ...

    7. Hi James, thanks for sharing your thoughts on this blog. Hopefully someone will get inspired by this little discussion and dig deeper. Yes, the Yuga transitions are always turbulent. In Sanskrit the term used is "pralaya", which generally means worldwide destruction. This is the main reason why we find very little evidence of the great civilizations of the previous Yugas.

  15. Hello Bibhu,

    Thanks’ fort he remarkable explanation concerning equal Yugas from 3000 years! I found you site searching for more info about the eras in the human history. A good point for me are the 3-d volume of the Secret Doctrine by Elena Blavatsky, the “Holly Science“ by Sri Jukteswar Giri and also some other sources concerning the so called “end of world” on 21-23.12.2012…

    You mention in your article:
    “Aryabhatta mentions that the text was composed 3,600 years into the Kali Yuga, when he was 23 years old. Since the Aryabhatiya was composed in 499 CE, the beginning of the Kali Yuga can be traced back to 3102 BC. statement, by itself, does not reveal any information about the astronomical basis on which the date was calculated, or whether the calculation was performed by Aryabhatta himself. It is possible that this date was adopted by Aryabhatta from some other source.”

    I think the date 3102 BC. (or 3101 BC. like in the Secret Doctrine) and the number of 3600 years can be follwed from the Sri Jukteswar “Holly Science” – there is written that 499 CE is the last year from the descending Kali Yuga which according to his (Sri Jukteswar) calculations lasts 1200 Years, and because of error that time the whole period of the previous descending Dwapara Yuga (from 2400 years) was added to this one of the Kali Yuga (so 2400 from Dwapara + 1200 from Kali gives 3600 Years before 499 CE (so 1200 - 499 CE = 701 BC., 701 BC. + 2400 (descending Dwapara) = 3101 BC.)
    That means that the beginning of descending Dwapara Yuga (3101 BC.) was wrong set as the beginning of Kali Yuga…
    Actually it seems both, your calculations and these one of Sri Jukteswar Giri, are correct.

    1. Hi Ilira,

      Thanks for bringing this up. Here's the complete text of what Aryabhatta said in the Aryabhatiya:

      "When 60 times 60 years (i.e. 3600 years) are gone, when the 3 quarters of the Yuga elapsed, It was my 23rd birth day".

      If 3 quarters of the Yuga is 3600 years, it means that according to Aryabhatta the Kali Yuga was of 4800 years duration.

      So, as per the explanation provided by you, Aryabhatta had added the descending Dwapara (2400 years)+ descending Kali (1200 years) + ascending Kali (1200 years) to arrive at the value of 4800 years for the duration of the Kali Yuga.

      But how could Aryabhatta make the simple mistake of adding Dwapara years to the Kali yuga? He was a famous astronomer, not a layman. Its difficult for me to comprehend how he can make such a basic error.

      Secondly Aryabhatta clearly believed in yugas of equal duration of 3000 years. Why would he adopt the 1:2:3:4 division for the yugas, and on top of that make such a simple mistake of adding Dwapara years to Kali?

      This is why I am inclined to believe that Aryabhatta was not even talking of the Kali Yuga. He never used the term Kali Yuga, instead he said "current Yuga". He is probably talking of a system imported from outside India. And in that system the current era or "world age" lasts for 4800 years of which 3600 years had elapsed in 499 CE. Which means whatever "world age" Aryabhatta was talking about had ended in 1699 CE.

  16. Good research!!!! I believe in Brahma Kumaries , they have the same concept . This is Sangamyug ( period between kaliyuga and satyug) . Which is 100 years long.....

    1. Thanks. I am not aware of the system followed by the Brahma Kumaris, but its good to know that their system overlaps with the Yuga Calendar based on the cycle of the Saptarshis.

    2. When u get chance try to google Brahma Kumaris Life might get some more information similar to your research....

  17. This is really a massive piece of information and even I have to agree intuitively that 2025 should be the end of Kaliyuga or at least the peak of cleansing process to establish dharma. Western astrology also accepts that Age of Aquarius commences in 2025, which is the age of domination of group consciousness over individual governance or dictatorship. Sri Sathya Sai Baba had also predicted at the world religion summit that there was a possibility of birth of one world religion. A Swedish psychic (can't remember his name) had predicted that a messiah from India will establish one world democracy. And also, Nostradamus and Kalagnana seem to be meeting at a common point - birth of Kalki, and in my opinion it should be around 2023. Either he takes the stage or he takes birth. Kalagnanam might be interest to you as that involves interpretations, and it is said Brahmendra rishi wrote it and said he would come back as Kalki in the future when 100,000 civilian lives will be lost in bloodshed involving communal clashes. He had also predicted Mahatma Gandhi's birth and as the freedom fighter who will lead India against the British. I realize that your blog is purely scientific, and it is amazing, but intuitively when knowledge meets with science and dates also match, what could be more amazing? Thank you for this great info.

  18. Thanks for the feedback, and for sharing the various predictions and prophecies. I have checked out Kalagnanam and it appears to give very detailed information. My feeling is that many of these prophecies (including the Christian Revelations) draw on some older sources, which are lost to us now. To what extent they are correct remains to be seen, but there seems to be a general agreement that the period around 2025 marks a shift in the yugas.
    Another very interesting prediction was made by Alice Bailey, who was a member of the Theosophical Society.In 1946, she had channeled information from ascended masters that "Christ" or "Maitreya" would return to the physical plane sometime after 2025 AD. Once again, if this was channeled information or not, is debatable. But the date 2025 stands out.
    This indicates that the Saptarshi Calendar, which was used widely in India even till the Maurya times, must have been the basis of the yuga reckoning used by the ancients. The 2700 Saptarshi Cycle is also known as a "saptarshi yuga", and the saptarshis were always regarded as the ones who appear at the beginning of a yuga to promulgate the arts of civilization. However, it is also said that the sapta-rishis do not appear in the Kali Yuga,which is probably why they did not manifest during the transition from the descending to the ascending Kali Yuga in c.900 BCE. Instead the various prophets emerged during this time. Therefore, sometime in the next 100 years or so, we can expect the sapta-rishis to manifest once again to lay the foundations of the new yuga - the ascending Dwapara.

    1. Next yuga is Satya or Krita Yuga - not Dwapara. :) Man will go back to having nothing, and start afresh as all scientific inventions would have left man with nothing in hand at all.

    2. In my article I have argued that the Yuga Cycle is comprised of an ascending and descending cycle of 12,000 years each. Such a system was followed by the ancient Jains and the Greeks. This means that the Kali Yuga will be followed by the Dwapara Yuga. It makes sense intuitively as well, since we do not see any abrupt transitions in the cycles of day and night or in the cycles of the seasons. The intensity of light always increases gradually in the smaller cycles. Therefore, this essential pattern should also be present in the Yuga Cycle.

    3. Thanks. Am, getting back to you after a long time. I have been looking into Nostradamus's predictions as well. Even I followed Sri Yukteswar's Holy Science earlier to believe Dwapara follows after Kali. Age of Truth and conscience is usually Satya as many are suggesting. On the other side, as you say, human evolution is gradual, is also correct, based on the atomic science revolution.

      The reason, am getting back to you is because of the latest revolution of the Aam Aadmi in India and Pakistan. Leave aside judgments, whether a person like Arvind Kejriwal is honest or not, but again as I work purely on intuition and not as qualified as you, I can say it has been a sudden resuscitation of the energy wave, and is tremendously messianic in nature. What I saw about AK when he stood in the midst of all the corrupt politicians, looked like one man clearly glowing with soul insight, who was thoroughly misunderstood and misinterpreted by everybody, and by doing so, people were making a laughing stock of themselves. This was the exact situation, when Lord Krishna incarnated. Duryodhana and the rest mocked him, made fun of him as a gwala who knows nothing about politics. But, at least one good thing convinced me about AK was, the effort and the genuine dignity he wants to restore in the system by instilling faith in the people that spiritualism can work in politics and the first step to it is by embracing Satya. The energy wave was massive when Annaji went on a fast and people thronged from all over,and we can see it was miraculous, as if created by an Avatar. Only an Avatar has the ability to draw such inspiration from crowds and make it peaceful.

      Now, Arsaran Ul Mulk has started Aam Aadmi Party, and Adnan Randhawa has started Aam Aadmi Party of Pakistan in Pakistan. This seems strange, how the wave is catching up, and all of them are As. They clearly accepted they were inspired by Arvind Kejriwal.

      My suspicion is, Arvind Kejriwal is at least a brief time Messiah of Indian Politics whether he succeeds at the center or not, but his intentions seem clear, and his knowledge, and the way he orates is amazingly enlightened. I am not being biased, partial or blind in this, because if a person can always answer your questions with a wholesome clarity, and dispel the ignorance, it means he is messianic in nature. He has practiced Vipassana. i would like to keep on comparing your blog, with Nostradamus's prediction about Chyren Selin who is supposed to come from the islands of five rivers to one - Haryana is close. Apart from what Kalki Purana says, the person is born in shambhala. AK is from Siwani and it contains Siva. So, at least he is here to prove that we are in the last phase of Kaliyug, and much remains for WW3 and cannibalism which are supposed to coincide due to food shortage and price rise. This will be a horrible period to witness while spiritualism will be on the rise as well. Earth cannot be ridden with evil completely ever. While on one hand we may notice extreme evil, gory forces pushing humankind into pits of corruption and carnal tendencies, equally on the other side there will spiritual forces working hard to awaken mankind. Thank you!

    4. Hi,
      In my opinion the entire ascending cycle of 9,000 years starting with ascending Dwapara, can be regarded as a "Golden Age" since throughout this period mental virtues and human capabilities will go on increasing.
      Regarding Kejriwal, my feeling is that he is honest, committed, perservent, well-informed, and articulate and wants to bring a genuine change in the political process in India. Since I do not watch TV I am probably not as impressed by his oratory skills as you are. But what about the other members of his party? Is it not possible that some people are joining the party out of selfish motives? So, whether the AAP will be an agent of change or not remains to be seen.
      Besides, a political party at the center cannot stop corruption at the state level, end corrupt practices wthin the various arms of the government and public sector, stop corruption in civil society and the private sector, or stop rapes, murders, petty crimes etc. Nor will a political party in India have any effect on people around the globe. The real challenge, really, is to stop the corruption in the minds of the people - to restore peace, tranquility, and mental purity, to instill a desire for truth and wisdom, to encourage humility, compassion, selfless service etc. This is beyond the scope of any political party which will waste most of its energies in fighting its daily battles.
      The real answers will come from the civil society from all over the world, and that change is already happenning. I do not see any specific person as the Kalki Avatar, since, as I have mentioned in some of my earlier comments, I believe that Kalki Avatar will not be a mortal but will come in the form of a comet. Our planet may have a date with a cometary swarm in the near future. Of course, there may be a lot of enlightened and inspired people who will make valuable contributions in the process of awakening before the coming of the Avatar. But none should be mistaken for the Kalki Avatar, whose power and glory is beyond our wildest imagination.

    5. Hi,
      I too had to reflect a lot in the mean time after what I felt might be a positive way forward. But Nostradamus clearly gives indication of the man as the third anti-christ who will restore peace on the planet. So far, the first two anti-christs were accurate, as we even find their names in the quantet. Chyren is the third which if taken as an Indian name, becomes - Kiran - Light - and he clearly brings indications in further quantets about how the corrupt will get punished and he also describes his aura, his energy and says the earth will rain with milk. Milk is symbolic for purity, universal brotherhood, peace and spiritualism. Edgar Cayce's predictions have come true on many occasions. It will be too long to present all of them here, but he had predicted that Second Coming will be happening in 1998. The year 1997, witnessed phenomenon of Ganesha drinking milk, even though we as skeptics may just scorn the whole thing calling it as a scientific whatever... But law of miracles are Einsteinian. Whether I will be able to prove it or not, but I was again told personally, by someone that whenever such a phenomenon occurs it is the mark of a realized soul. Comet as you said, may pass, and true that the universe also brings such signs.. and so does nature. All of these are interconnected and they all breathe the same spirit of Universal Consciousness. Even when Adi Sankaracharya was born, they said non-seasonal flowers bloomed and there were other phenomenons noticed. So the same with Buddha's incarnation also.

      Regarding your question on Kejriwal and the other members, it is a bit disappointing that he is lacking that kind of support he needs. He himself is not able to find stable grounds as of now and don't know what is it that is pushing him to make decisions in haste. Of course, his own party members have thrown him out of his motives, which was the case even with Gandhiji, even though he did pioneer a stronger movement of change, but he too was often betrayed by his own people. But times have changed, and power of media has decreased people's intelligence. If a person can easily believe that a man on Samskar or Aastha is God, just because he is on television, then they can believe anything in politics. Even, if he is not that person we are expecting to bring that change... not only my intuition, but I have checked with a few more, and they all are saying we have to wait till 2030. I too take your last sentence as the answer - that we must not mistake that He has come by imagining someone else to be that person.

      Also, my reason to speculate if he has messianic qualities was because, out of little experience in meditation, and since Yogoda lessons teach us to look into the eyes of the person, certain signs about AK revealed that he has meditated a lot and attained that energy of calm and tranquility. After I felt this, I read on Wiki that he has practiced Vipasana. But we cannot take that alone as the reason to conclude someone to be a Messiah. AAP has good members, and good volunteers for sure, but there will always be inside elements who will look to spoil the game as it has happened recently. The beacon of hope in Indian politics is calling for an honest and spiritual man who can groom individuals also. I like your answer and take that as insight. We still have to focus inwards and just forget about what's to come as we cannot do control the change. Thanks. - Shyam

  19. This book might interest you -

  20. Incorrect Calculation ...

    ::Measurement of Time::

    1. I have written an entire article showing that the original Yuga Cycle was of 12,000 years duration which was composed of yugas of 2700 years duration separated by transitional periods of 300 years, and you have sent me a link which shows the same old calculations present in many of the Puranas where the yugas were inflated by a factor of 360 and the yuga durations had a 1:2:3:4 ratio.

      There is absolutely no sense in sending me a link whose contents I have just refuted in the article. Either you have not read the article or you did not pay attention. Even if you disagreed with my hypothesis, I would expect a more reasonable and well-argued comment rather than a terse statement like "incorrect calculation".

    2. Dear Sirji...

      I would agree to the figure 12,000 years if and only if its considered as 12,000 Daivic year not human years...

      eg: 12,000 Daivic years = 4,320,000 human years.
      As explained in the link
      360 ahoraatras of Devas makes one year of Devas = Davic year..

      Hence i marked your calculation incorrect.

      Secondly: Have you contemplated on the number 360.

    3. There are a couple of Sanskrit texts - The Manu Smriti (Chapter 1) and the Mahabharata (Santi Parva), which specify that the yuga duration is of 12,000 years (and not divine years). The Mahabharta specifically mentions that it is 12,000 human years. Here are the relevant sections:

      The Laws of Manu, Translated by G. Buhler

      "69. They declare that the Krita age four thousand years; the twilight preceding it consists of as many hundreds, and the twilight following it of the same number.

      70. In the other three ages with their twilights preceding and following, the thousands and hundreds are diminished by one.

      71. These twelve thousand which thus have been just mentioned as the total of four ages, are called one age of the gods."

      The Mahabharata, translated by Kisari Mohan Ganguli, Book 12: Santi Parva

      "Computing by the days and nights of human beings about which I have told thee, I shall speak of the day and night of Brahman and his years also. I shall, in their order, tell thee the number of years, that are for different purposes computed differently in respect of the Krita, the Treta, the Dwapara, and the Kali yugas. Four thousand years is the duration of the first or Krita age. The morning of that epoch consists of four hundred years and its evening is of four hundred years. As regards the other yugas, the duration of each gradually decreases by a quarter in respect of both the substantive period with the conjoining portion and the conjoining portion itself. The duration of the Dwapara also is two thousand years, and its morning extends for two hundred years and its evening also for two hundred. The duration of the Kali yuga is one thousand years, and its morning extends for one hundred years, and its evening for one

      The learned say that these twelve thousand years constitute what is called a yuga. A thousand such yugas compose a single day of Brahman."

      So you see that the idea of 12,000 years yuga duration is clearly mentioned in the ancient texts. Many scholars and saints such as Sri Aurobindo, Lokmanya Tilak, Sri Yukteswar etc. also supported the idea of a 12,000 year yuga cycle.

      I have also shown that the 12,000 year yuga cycle, with yuga durations of 2700 years separated by transitional periods of 300 years, closely matches the archaeological and geological records.

      It is, of course, entirely your choice which calculation method you prefer to believe.

  21. Also you have missed Abhjit nakshatram
    which as 2.5 nazhika bhelam (Strenght) before sunrise. one nazhika equal 24 minutes and one vinazhika 24 seconds.
    In summary there are 28 nakshatram...


    1. The Abhijit nakshtara occupies roughly 4° of the sky as opposed to the 13° 20' occupied by all the other nakshtras. Hence it is less than 1/3 rd the size of the other nakshatras. It is believed to have been an intercalary nakshatra, which was inserted at the end of the nakshatra list (which started from Shravana in the Golden Age)

      In the current system of 27 nakshatras, the Abhijit nakshatra overlaps with parts of Uttara Ashadha and Shravana nakshtras. Hence, it is already accounted for in the present system of 27 nakshatras, and including it again will result in double counting. The Vedanga Jyotish follows the principle of 27 nakshatras, and most scholars agree with this division.

      The moon traverses each nakshatra in approximately 1 day as a result of which the sidereal lunar month (computed with respect to the fixed stars) is of 27.3 days duration. This is mentioned in our ancient texts as well which say that the Moon has 27 wives with whom he stays for one day in a sidereal lunar month.

  22. Hello Bibhu,
    James writing here (remember chaos theory ?).
    It just occurred to me that another aspect in the human evolution seems to match the timing discussed in your article, in particular the descending phase. It is quite accepted today that humans' health started to deteriorate with the introduction of grains and agriculture about 10 to 12000 years ago. Tooth decay exploded, problem with bone density and malformation increased, etc. And the climax has been reached more or less today with the so-called diseases of civilization: diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity, etc, due to an excess of sugar and grains in one's diet. As you may know, getting back to a so-called ancestral diet (often referred to as "paleo" or "primal" diet) is most of the time triggering gerat health improvements, in particular if one removes wheat entirely from his/her diet. Wheat is so ubiquitous today, in almost all processed foods. Same with sugar. Moreover, livestock are oftentimes overfed with grains, treated with hormones and antibiotics, etc. Animal foods produced from such livestock has quite bad consequences for health. The increase of farming / agriculture / food processing has been exponential, health issues as well (social inequalities notwithstanding). These practices have influenced societal trends (hierarchical societies with concentration of powers), screwed up the environment, accelerated a general dumbing down and has driven humans on the edge of a critical point (global climate, desertification, etc). Another food for thought :)

  23. Hi James,
    Interesting points. However, I am not so sure we can blame agriculture for all our problems. According to the Yuga Cycle theory, human longetivity, and human capabilities - both physical and mental- deteriorate during the descending phase. But what triggers this deterioration? I would like to think that there might be some cosmic changes - for instance change in the frequency/intensity of light, change in gravitational forces etc. - that triggers this downward spiral.

    Also if you look at all human health parameters over the past two thousand years of the ascending Kali Yuga - human longetivity, mortality, diseases etc. - we are actually on an upward spiral. During the same time both population and agricultural practices have been steadily increasing.

    The current problems of obesity, diabetes, cancer, environmental pollution etc. we face is largely a creation of our own greed, laziness and disregard for the environment. The relentless consumption of processed food, frozen dinners, fried stuff etc. (and now GMO foods) is bound to create health calamities. No point blaming only agriculture and grains for the mess. I still believe in a balanced diet. All good doctors recommend a balanced diet comprising of grains, proteins, fruits and veggies, and all the healthy people I know vouch for that.

    However, large corporations are playing around with the food chain, for their own profits, and in the process destabilizing the environment and destroying human health. But although everyone is willing to point a finger at these corporations, no-one who works there and gets a fat paycheck is willing to leave his job and do something worthwhile. And there's your real problem. Greed and apathy. Everywhere, and at all levels.

    1. "Greed and apathy", very true, but you forget ADDICTION. These industries are oftentimes "pushers" (e.g. refined sugar). ANd people fall for it because they become "junkies". I broke some food addiction myself and realized how insidious some foods can be. Just the modern strain of wheat (semi-dwarf high yield strain) is a "plague". It is a frankengrain with denatured proteins and sugars that triggers all sorts of conditions from IBS, Celiac, inflammation, brain fog, binge eating disorders, etc. I was shocked when I first realized how my past health disorders all but vanished by eliminating wheat from my diet ... But this is on a tangent with your blog post. I just thought that the increasing agriculture practices and reliances on addictive pseudo food were just other symptoms of a downward evolution. And with agriculture came the stress of preservation (food stores), concentration of wealth, hierarchical societies born out of this power concentration, etc. It is all connected together. And just to close with a small note of disagreement, my opinion is that there is no such thing as a balanced diet for all. Everyone must find his own balance, depending on genetic background, environment, season, etc. And to be honest, I don't think people are healthier today than say 30,000 years ago. Especially western countries where dependence on palliative medicine is huge! But awareness is growing with respect to this basic aspect which is nutrition.

      By the way, if you have not read this guy, it could be of interest to you:
      Charles Eisenstein - The Ascent of Humanity. Lots of food for thoughts in his book. It is available for free online.


    2. Hi James,
      It is true that addiction to junk food is a serious issue, which is getting worse by the day. Unfortunately, the corporate-sponsored governments of the world continue to look the other way even as this health calamity unfolds.

      I also agree with you that the notion of "balanced diet" depends on one's genetics, geographical location and other factors. The best solution is to follow the diet of your ancestors who lived in the same region 2-3 generations back. Those guys were far healthier than us. Even the previous generation was healthier than us.

      However, I do not support the idea of a primal, hunter-gatherer diet, which some folks seem to be recommending. The hunter-gatherer diet is meant for hunter-gatherers, and not for people who lead sedentary city lives. If you live in the forest, and build your own house, and hunt your own food, your metabolic rate will be so high you would be able to digest a truck. But in the city one needs to be more moderate and circumspect about what one consumes.

      It may be true that people who lived 30,000 years ago were healthier than us. But we do not know what kind of ecological conditions prevailed back then - the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere, the quality of sunlight, the purity of water, the nutrient content in food etc. So we cant really conclude what could have been the reason for their better health.

      However, we can compare with the folks who lived a 1000 or 2000 years back, since environmental conditions have not changed significantly in this period. And we are, or at least the previous generation was, healthier than the folks who lived 1000 years ago. Is this due to improvement in living conditions? Or due to subtle changes in atmospheric conditions? or due to some unknown cosmic factors (in the ascending Kali Yuga)? I cant say.

      In general, I dont find any fault with agriculture (since the misuse of grains has started only in the past couple of decades), or even with hierarchical agricultural societies, which is necessary for the advancements in the sciences and arts. It is a natural tendency amongst humans to organize themselves in hierarchies. Even in a tribal society, you will find that there exists a very strongly defined hierarchy. I dont find anything wrong with a hierarchy if it is based on knowledge, wisdom, compassion and justice, and provides a structured career path for people based on their individual potential and inclinations.

      The way I see it, the problem is not with hierarchies, or with various systems such as capitalism, socialism etc - but with the corrupt, selfish, egoistic people who inhabit and dominate these structures. Once man falls from his position of grace, everything degrades. Any system inhabited by such people will be polluted. Conversely, in the absence of such people all structures and systems will gravitate towards a state of benevolent humanism.

      In previous eras, when human consciousness was uplifted, such benevolent societies existed. Not any more. Hopefully things will change in future.

      I have read parts of the book "The Ascent of Humanity" and found it very good. Thanks for reminding me. I need to go through the entire book sometime.


  24. Hello,
    I appreciate your efforts...You might be interested in my article
    Your input will be most appreciated.

  25. Hi Bibhu,

    Could you respond to this critque of your article :

    "The "great calamities" that supposedly took place during this "transitional period" (976-676 B.C.E) were by no means peculiar or strange and could be found in numerous other periods in history. Nor was there a "global collapse" in civilization; some civilizations were in decline while others were flourishing, just like any other period in history. The Greeks and Anatolians (among others) were in decline while the Assyrians and Nubians (among others) were flourishing. And when the author states that "the Indus Valley civilization finally ended at around 1000 BC", he is conjuring facts out of thin air, for the last vestiges of the IVC had already disappeared several centuries prior to the onset of the so-called "transitional period."

    1. Hi Virendra,

      The criticism is baseless. Whoever has written this has very little understanding of IVC or World history. A simple fact checking on the internet is sufficient to prove this. Here are the facts:

      1. The Late Harappan Period extended from 1900 BC - 1000 BC. Check the Time Line on

      You can also check the IVC page on Wikipedia. The following observation has been made by Jim Shafer: "However, the Indus Valley Civilization did not disappear suddenly, and many elements of the Indus Civilization can be found in later cultures. Current archaeological data suggest that material culture classified as Late Harappan may have persisted until at least c. 1000-900 BCE and was partially contemporaneous with the Painted Grey Ware culture." (Shaffer, Jim (1993). "Reurbanization: The eastern Punjab and beyond".)

      2. Check the Wikipedia Page for the Assyrian culture. This is what it says:

      "The period from 1200 BC to 900 BC was a dark age for the entire Near East, North Africa, Caucasus, Mediterranean and Balkan regions, with great upheavals and mass movements of people.

      Assyria and its empire were not unduly affected by these tumultuous events for some 150 years, perhaps the only ancient power that was not. However, upon the death of Ashur-bel-kala in 1056 BC, Assyria went into a comparative decline for the next 100 or so years. The empire shrank significantly, and by 1020 BC Assyria appears to have controlled only areas close to Assyria itself, essential to keeping trade routes open in eastern Syria, south eastern Asia Minor central Mesopotamia and north western Iran."

      Therefore, Assryria suffered a sudden decline for a period of 100 years from 1056 BC - 9056 BC. It was the only ancient power that was not affected to a very large extent.

      3. I have mentioned in the article that "The period from 1070 BC – 664 BC is known as the “Third Intermediate Period” of Egypt, during which time Egypt was run over and ruled by foreign rulers, and there was political and social disintegration and chaos. Egypt was increasingly beset by a series of droughts, below-normal flooding of the Nile, and famine". This can be easily fact checked by anyone having doubts.

      4. The Olmec civilization also suffered major damages. Again check the Wikipedia page for the Olmec culture: This is what it states: "A wholesale destruction of many San Lorenzo monuments also occurred circa 950 BCE, which may indicate an internal uprising or, less likely, an invasion. The latest thinking, however, is that environmental changes may have been responsible for this shift in Olmec centers, with certain important rivers changing course."

      5. All of this is in addition to the destruction and calamities in Greece, North Africa and Near East.

      Clearly this was a worldwide collapse of civilization at around the same time i.e. c. 1000 BC, which coincides with the transition from the descending to the ascending Yuga Cycle.

  26. Bibhu, I find the contents informative well and researched.

    1. Thanks for the feedback Bibhu Prasad. I appreciate it.

  27. A very informative article sir.
    But why is it that we have the knowledge of the catastrophic events that occurred in 9976 BC but not able to tell what happened in 976 BC - 676 BC? Was it because,as it was the end of the descending kaliyug, people didn't have the know how to record historical events?
    I am talking about Indian people here sir

    1. Hi Sidhant,
      Good question. I think the answer lies in the fact that the Saptarshis did not appear on earth at the beginning of the ascending Kali Yuga i.e. after 676 BC. As a result we never really recovered from that disruption, and the enormous erosion of knowledge that took place during that period. It is said that the Saptarshis do not appear in the Kali Yuga because of its dense material vibrations. Instead we had the various prophets who provided the moral guidance for the ascending Kali Yuga.
      Things were different at the end of the Golden Age i.e in 9676 BC. At that time not only were the people far more enlightened and capable, but the Saptarshis had also manifested, and they had imparted the entire knowledge of the arts and sciences (including history) to humanity. That information was transmitted through oral traditions for thousands of years.

    2. Very Very Interesting - With this blog iam happy to mention our roots adam and eve is never a myth.. Thank you bibhu.
      I have a one more question ...
      Who are these saptarishis? |
      Why were thy called saptarishis?
      Which lieange do they follow?
      Why are they created ?
      Where do they live ?
      How different is this saptarishi calender from our Gregorian calender?

    3. Hello Elizabeth,
      I am happy to know that you found the article interesting. Here's my response to the questions you had raised. Hope you find the answers useful.

      1. Who are the Saptarshis, and why are they so called?

      The Saptarshis are the Seven Sages (Sapta=seven, Rishi=sage) who are regarded as the mind-born sons of Brahma (the Creative Spirit), and the ancestors of all the gods, humans, demons, and all living beings. They are spiritually enlightened, fully self-realized beings of light, living eternally in close communion with Brahma, in the upper planetary spheres.

      2. Where do they live?

      In the Indian tradition, there are 7 spheres of existence (lokas) above the earthly plane, the highest being Brahma-loka. The Saptarshis are supposed in the reside in the 4th plane (Maharloka) or the 5th plane (Jana-loka). In the context of the planet earth, the seven stars of the Great Bear constellation (Ursa Major), revolving around the north pole, are identified with the Seven Sages. However, our solar system is simply a "microcosm" of a greater reality. In the context of the macrocosm, we may, therefore, think that the Saptarshis reside at the farthest reaches of our galaxy or our universe.

      3. Why were they created?

      The Saptarshis are immortal beings, fully aware of the divine laws of the universe, and are the repository of all Vedic knowledge (and are regarded as the composers of the Vedic hymns). Hence they are the patriarchs of all living entities and all Vedic wisdom. They were created by Brahma for the purpose of providing guidance to all souls (by instructing them in dharma and the Vedas) for achieving liberation. It is for this reason that they incarnate on the material plane during the "transitional period" between the yugas to formulate the laws, philosophies, systems, and structures which are appropriate for the new yuga.

      4. What is their lineage?

      A number of Vedic texts enumerate the names of the Saptarshis, although there is a slight variation between them. One of the popular lists (from the Satapatha Brahmana) is: Kashyapa, Atri, Vashista, Vishvamitra, Gautama, Jamadagni and Bharadvaja. Since the Saptarshis were the first beings of light created by Brahma, they do not belong to any lineage as such. However, they have given rise to multiple lineages. Every Hindu traces his ancestral lineage to one of the Seven Sages via his "gotra" (i.e. clan). So, if you ask a Hindu his "gotra" he will mention the name of one of the Saptarshis.

      5. What is the difference between the Gregorian Calendar and the Saptarshi Calendar?

      They are used for different purposes. The Gregorian Calendar is a Solar Calendar used for tracking the days of the week, months and years. The Saptarshi Calendar is based on the 2700 years cycle of the Saptarshis, as they move through the 27 nakshatras. This 2700 year cycle, which is called a Saptarshi Yuga, corresponds to the duration of each yuga in the yuga cycle. Hence, it was used for tracking large cycles of time, the lowest denominator being a year.

  28. Beginning of each yuga(or atleast it's transitional period) is marked by the death of a Vishnu Avatar.Rama's death started the dwapara yuga.Krishna's death started the kali yuga.And they have been the most prominent Avatars of Vishnu.Is it possible that the Kalki Avatar will become the next most prominent avatar by appearing at the end of this ascending kali yuga?
    Also Gautam Buddha,believed to be the 9th avatar of Vishnu,appeared at the beginning of the present kali yuga.

    1. Hi Sidhant,
      Good observation. I agree with you. The end of the Kali Yuga, specifically the transitional period, should be marked by the appearance of the Kalki avatar. However, since this is the Kali Yuga, I tend to believe that Kalki shall not be a mortal, but will instead manifest in the form of a celestial object, possibly a comet.

    2. Why do you think He will be in the form of a comet,sir? Doesn't the Kalki purana specify the name of His parents,birthplace,horse,pet parrot,weapon and for how many years He is going to rule.Also how can a comet wipe out a part of the human civillisation?

    3. There are a few ancient Indian texts which describe Kalki as a comet:

      The Srimad Bhagavatam:

      “Seated on a fast horse named Devadatta, Kalki,
      the lord of all, endowed with eight yogic powers
      and peerless splendour, will course over the earth
      at high velocity, destroying the countless plunderers
      parading as kings.”

      The Gita Govinda, a 12th century work composed by the poet Jayadeva:

      “To route and slaughter the barbarian host,
      brandishing his mighty sword,
      appearing like a comet in his fury,
      Kesava assumes the Kalki form;
      Hail Hari! Lord of the world!
      Appearing like a comet discharging arrows,
      brandishing his sword, he cuts down the barbarian host
      in a mighty conflict 'til all are laid low.
      Hail Kalki avatara! Cause of the world.”

      Dasavatara Stotra, 10th sloka:

      “O Kesava, O Hari, who have assumed the form of Kalki!
      You appear like a comet and carry a terrifying sword for bringing about the annihilation of the wicked barbarian men at the end of the Kali-yuga.”

      I do not think that these are metaphorical descriptions. They may be physically describing the manner in which Kalki will appear. A comet, with its two tails, very closely resembles the image of a person on horseback holding a raised up sword. A comet can get gravitationally disrupted on close approach to the earth, resulting in a rain of meteor fragments which can cause great devastation. Many of the past cataclysms on the earth, including some of the previous mass extinction events, the end of the ice age etc. are believed to have been caused by meteor impacts from comets.
      Kalki is also supposed to come from Shambhala. In Hindu-Buddhist lore Shambhala is an invisible, ideal kingdom located somewhere in the cosmos, populated by superhumans. It has nothing to do with the earth. The names etc. assigned to Kalki does not imply that Kalki has to be mortal. All our gods and goddesses also have names, parents, weapons etc. Besides, a mortal born on earth in the Kali Yuga will simply not have the spiritual and physical powers required to bring about the end of the yuga, and usher in the era of enlightenment.
      This is a very long topic, and I just mentioned the important points briefly. Someday I may write an article on this.

    4. Namsaste Punyatama..

      From the same parva few snipnet's for you..
      Every man lived for a thousand years, and every man was blessed with a thousand children.
      This is the age of darkness kali yuga-- shara shari 100 years max .. you cannot equate kali era with other yuga.. Just not possible.

      Eg:: I will quote manu in my next snip--
      During the period of Rama's sway, all men were whole and all men attained the fruition of their wishes. The very women did not quarrel with one another, what need then be said of the men? During his rule his subjects were always devoted to virtue. Contented, crowned with fruition in respect of all the objects of their desire, fearless, free, and wedded to the vow of truth, were all the people when Rama governed the kingdom. The trees always bore flowers and fruit and were subject to no accidents. Every cow yielded milk filling a drona to the brim. Having dwelt, in the observance of severe penances, Rama performed ten Horse-sacrifices (Ashwa Medham should not be considered as Killing Horse - I hope you understand This) of great splendour 1 and to them the freest access was given to all. Possessed of youth, of a dark complexion, with red eyes, he looked like the leader of an elephantine herd. With aims stretching down to his knees and of handsome face, his shoulders were like those of a lion and the might of his arms great. Ascending upon the throne of Ayodhya, he ruled for
      "Ten thousand and ten hundred years"

      Yuvanaswa, the finger of Indra, placed in his mouth, began to yield a jet of milk. Sucking Indra's finger, he grew up into a stout youth in a hundred days,
      In twelve days he looked like one of twelve years " In kali age i would be considered as deformaty

      Gaya also, the son of Amurtarayas, fell a prey to death. For a hundred years, that king subsisted upon the remains of sacrificial food. (Pleased with such devotion) Agni desired to give him boons. The boons solicited by Gaya were, 'Let
      and on every fourth month, for a thousand years, Gaya repeatedly performed the Horse-sacrifice (Ashwa Medham should not be considered as Killing Horse - I hope you understand This) . Rising (at the completion of every sacrifice) he gave away a hundred thousand kine and hundreds of mules (unto the Brahmanas) during this period
      Note the point Thousan years...

      "Narada said, 'I will give back to thee that son of thine, named Suvarnashthivin, whom Parvata gave thee and who has been bereft of life. Of the splendour of gold, that child shall have a thousand years.'"

      Suvarnashthivin of great fame and energy began to delight the hearts of his parents. Of great prowess, he ascended the throne of his father after the latter had repaired to heaven, and ruled for a period of one thousand and one hundred years. He worshippedthe gods in many great sacrifices characterised by profuse presents. Possessed of great splendour, he gratified the gods and the Pitris.

    5. Hi,

      In the Dwapara Yuga, Lord Krishna had lived for a little more than a 100 years, some say 125 years. Balarama, and the five Pandava brothers were also of nearly the same age as Krishna, and had therefore lived for nearly 125 years.

      If the average age of people at the end of the Dwapara Yuga was 125 years, then it could not have been very much more at the end of the Treta Yuga when Rama had lived. If you use the 4:3:2:1 ratio, then the average age at the end of the Treta would be approx. 187 years.

      Besides, as per the genealogy of the kings given in the Puranas, there were approx. 25 generations between Rama and Krishna, since Brihadbala, the descendant of Rama, was killed in the Mahabharata War. If we assume that the average period of rule in the Dwapara Yuga was 100 years, then the duration of the Dwapara was close to 2500 years.

      This implies that the duration of the Treta Yuga was also of 2500 years (assuming equal duration of the yugas); or if we apply the 4:3:2:1 rule (which is incorrect, as I have pointed out in the article), the duration of the Treta would be close 3750 years. Rama, who had lived towards the end of the Treta Yuga would have lived for only a fraction of that period.

      Hence, the 10,000 years or thousand years mentioned in various texts are imaginary, inflated numbers,which were added when the original information was forgotten.

      However, I do believe that people in previous yugas lived for longer durations of time. In my opinion the average life periods were 400 years (Satya), 300 years (Treta), 200 years (Dwapara) and 100 years (Kali). For the Kali we can see that the average age is indeed close to 100 years, and for the Dwapara it may have been close to 200 years, since Krishna, Balaram and the Pandava brothers lived for nearly 125 years at the close of the Dwapara Yuga.

      I also believe that since the durations of the lifespans follow the 4:3:2:1 ratio, this was later applied to the yuga durations. However, the yuga cycle was entirely based on the cycle of the Saptarshis. This is clearly indicated by the historical, archaeological and calendrical information.

    6. The Laws of Manu clearly specifies that the duration of lifespans is 400 years in the Satya Yuga and decreases by a hundred years in each successive yuga. Here are the relevant verses from Chapter 1:

      81. In the Krita age Dharma is four-footed and entire, and (so is) Truth; nor does any gain accrue to men by unrighteousness.

      82. In the other (three ages), by reason of (unjust) gains (agama), Dharma is deprived successively of one foot, and through (the prevalence of) theft, falsehood, and fraud the merit (gained by men) is diminished by one fourth (in each).

      83. (Men are) free from disease, accomplish all their aims, and live four hundred years in the Krita age, but in the Treta and (in each of) the succeeding (ages) their life is lessened by one quarter.

  29. If the descending Satya yuga started in 12676 BC,who ruled the earth before that?Also,how do we bring dinosaurs into the picture who lived approximately 230 milllion years ago i.e. approximately 19200 yuga cycles before the current yuga cycle?Can your yuga cycle theory be applied to the time when dinosaurs ruled earth?

    1. Hi,
      Regarding the dinosaurs,I suggest that you the read the following two articles on my blog:

      1. A Day and Night of Brahma: The Evidence from Fossil Records
      2.The Evolutionary Cycles Of Creation and Catastrophe: The Case for Intelligent Design?

      I believe they will clarify your doubts regarding the applicability of the yuga cycle theory to extended periods of time.

      Regarding the period prior to 12676 BC, we have very little information, either from archaeological sources, or from the ancient texts. Although the ancient texts do talk of some events that took place before the descending yuga cycle, it is difficult to determine the exact timeframe in which those events took place.

    2. Dear Bibbu Dev Misra,
      I for one can't wait long for Dwapara Yuga or Krita yuga or whatever yuga that may come, any one of them is better than Kali Yuga;
      you are saying I have to wait 12 more years?
      Whether it is Kalki Deva or Vera Bramhendra or whoever good will come by that time, would have been born by now, right, so where is this person, it would be an honor to meet such person, and I am not sure if I would meet their standards though.

      What is the purpose of life? Why is this world created this way, one life lives on another, we are at the top of the food chain? How can we connect to the super consciousness? Can this happen in Kali Yuga?

    3. Hi,
      If we use the Saptarshi Calendar as the basis of the yuga cycle, it means that after 2025 we will enter into a "transitional period" of 300 years, before the next Yuga is fully manifested. This transitional period should be characterized by social, economic, environmental and cosmic changes - resulting in a complete collapse of the Kali Yuga structures, and the emergence of a new way of life. But the entire process will take time.

      The transitional period should also be characterized by the appearance of the Kalki Avatar. However, one cannot say exactly when Kalki will appear and in what form. If you read one of my earlier comments (on June 2, 2013)I have mentioned that I believe that Kalki avatar shall appear in the form of a comet. There is a fair bit of evidence from the ancient texts to arrive at such a hypothesis.

      According to the ancient traditions, the purpose of life is to become "god on earth", through many cycles of birth and death. We become gods when we achieve self-realization - by connecting to the Inner Source, and letting the Inner divinity shine through us. This can happen in any yuga. Lord Buddha himself achieved enlightenment in the Kali Yuga.

    4. Well if it is going to take 300 years, before next better yuga comes along, what we have is something I will have to live with, the alternative is not good.
      If the purpose of life is to become a god, then how many can achieve that, what about the rest who cannot.
      Why is this world created this way, one life feeds another life, i.e. a lion kills and eats another animal. Why would God create this way?

    5. The universe will continue until every soul finds its way back to the Creator. There will be no-one left behind.
      On our planet,carnivorous animals represent a tiny fraction of all living organisms. Most of all life forms is in the form of unicellular organisms - bacteria, fungi, algae etc. - which we cannot see. Amongst the visible life forms, plants are the most numerous, followed by herbivores. Carnivores, feeding on other animals, are an exception, and not representative of the cycle of life on earth.
      God gives all of us appropriate bodies with which we can work out our karma. Hence, carnivores get bodies which are necessary for them at that particular stage in their evolution.

  30. In my understanding of The Sacred Science of Sri Yukteswar as enlightened to him by Sri Babaji Haidakhan, the Kali Yuga is complete and ended around the mid 1700's that also coincides with the Age of Elctricity and Magentism so that we are now - 300 years since the mid 1700's - close to entering the Dwarpara Yuga.

    Previous calculations, due to the inability of mankind to understand the Yugas during the Kali Yuga we off - as you quite rightly have stated.

    It required a Mahaavatar, in the form of Sri Babaji to explain the true meaning of the Yugas to Sri Yukteswar.

    What is your understanding?



    1. Hello Jaishankar,

      I had an extended discussion on this topic with Walter Cruttenden, author of book "The Lost Star", who subscribes to the Yuga Cycle timeline explained by Sri Yukteswar. You may like to check out the discussion here:

      Yukteswar had assumed the 4:3:2:1 duration of the yugas mentioned in various Sanskrit texts, as well as the 3102 BC date for the start of the Kali Yuga, which has become a part of Indian folklore since the time of Aryabhatta. As I have pointed out in my article, both assumptions are incorrect. The 3102 BC date has no basis in astronomy, and the 4:3:2:1 ratio for the yuga durations (a highly unnatural arithmetic sequence not found in any other culture)was highly disputed, with many ancient astronomers believing in yugas of equal duration.

      Yukteswar's yuga cycle timeline, therefore, is not supported by historical, archaeological or calendrical information. His date for the start date of the Kali Yuga i.e. 499 AD, and the start date of the Dwapara i.e. 1899 AD are not realistic. The time period around 499 AD was by no means the darkest period of the yuga cycle. In fact this was the time of the "Golden Guptas" in India, with enormous progress in various arts and sciences. Yukteswar also said that the ascending Kali Yuga ended in 1699 CE, and the full manifestation of the ascending Dwapara started in 1899 CE, after a 200 year period of transition. The ancient texts, especially the Mahabharata, describes the Dwapara as a time when people were not only highly virtuous (as compared to the Kali Yuga), but they also had tremendous mental capabilities, which enabled them to astral travel, harness the forces of nature by uttering mantras, fly through the air etc. None of these mental capabilities are prevalent in today's world. From the standpoint of human virtue we have actually gone downhill since 1699 CE. Given the darkness and ignorance that pervades the world right now, it would be very difficult to persuade anyone to believe that we are in any other yuga than the Kali Yuga.

      On the other hand if we use the Saptarshi Calendar, with its 2700 year cycle, as the basis of the yuga cycle it shows a very strong correlation to the archaeological, historical and calendrical information. It is a valid calendar used in India for thousands of years, and the Saptarshi's are universally regarded as the enlightened rishis who appear at the beginning of a yuga to promulgate the rules of civilization. In that respect, it can be readily tied to the yuga cycle.

      Many people during the Kali Yuga have followed the information in the Puranas, and other ancient texts and oral traditions, and come to different conclusions regarding the yuga cycle. It would be a mistake to raise any of them to the status of infallibility. The Buddha himself said that everything taught by him should be accepted only if it accords to reason. The same yardstick should be applied to all saintly or scholarly persons. Otherwise, we will develop a narrow, cultic mentality which will retard the search for truth, and give precedence to blind faith over reason, evidence and logic.


  31. It is understandable that each end of an age on the descending arch will end with a cataclysm or eradication of knowledge, spirituality and civilisation since a rapid decline is on its way. On the other hand it doesnt make sense on an ascending age arch since during this time knowledge and rapid ascent is built up, instead great breakthroughs or insights or revealing historical and scientific discoveries would be more expected. It was a long long time since the previous ascending arch was due so no one could possibly have any insights into what is going to happen especially if this is the first step on the ascending arch that is to come. Thanks Camille

  32. Hi Camille,
    Good points. Yes, its true that the transitions in the ascending cycle may not be the same as in the descending cycle. As you mentioned, the previous ascending cycle was a long time back, and we do not have any memories of what happened in that cycle.

    Someone else had asked me this question earlier and what I believe is that in the ascending phase every transition should be accompanied by a sudden jump in consciousness, accompanied by higher knowledge and insights. However, what I also think is that this change in consciousness will be brought about by an influx of new energy, from certain cosmic sources. This may bring about changes in our physical, cranial and DNA structures. Our planet too, may have to "readjust" itself to this new energy, resulting in environmental calamities, and civilization collapses.

    The upcoming transition is from the dark, material age of Kali to the spiritual age of the Dwapara. This is equivalent to going from from darkness to dawn or from winter to spring in the smaller cycles. The magnitude of change that is coming is enormous. It is almost unbelievable as per the current paradigm. Therefore,I do expect both physical earth changes, as well as rapid consciousness changes, in the coming period of transition.

    Regarding the transitions after that - from the Dwapara to the Treta, and from the Treta to the Satya - the transitions may not be all that disruptive. However, we will be far better placed to answer those questions once we are in the Dwapara, and have access to higher mental faculties and wisdom. For the time being, we do not have adequate knowledge, nor is it very necessary, to speculate on the nature of those future transitions.

  33. Radhe Radhe

    Article is thought provoking, but it lacks one basic element - either you follow Vedic text to suggest something conclusive or completely ignore it giving modern views. Hybrid introspection can be a good read but not conclusive. How come the Yuga cycles differ as seen in article here with your article, which is based on pure Vedic texts.


    1. Hello,
      Thanks for your feedback. In my perspective, the hybrid approach is the best way to find the answers. There is nothing called a "pure Vedic text" anymore. Most of the Sanskrit texts were written down between the 1st - 10th centuries AD, and they contain many interpolations i.e.late additions, modifications etc. This is agreed upon by most scholars. In addition, a considerable amount of information has been lost. For instance, the original Vedas had 1,180 branches of which only 7 or 8 are now remembered.

      The yuga cycle timelines that are given in the link you have specified have been mentioned in many of the Puranas. I have given a detailed argument in the article stating why those numbers are incorrect. Perhaps you can refer to the article for my opinion on this matter.

      Given the current state of affairs, we need to take a cross-cultural look (since the Vedic wisdom was once dispersed throughout the world), and we also need to take the helpof history, archaeology, astronomy,and other modern disciplines to find the answers to these questions. I am not claiming that my interpretation is the correct one, or that everyone needs to be convinced of it. However, it is a potential solution, and it has many factors in its favour, especially from the historical, archaeological and calendrical perspectives.


  34. Good article, may I suggest an excellent book on the cycle of times
    "WHILE THE GODS PLAY" author; Alain Danielou.

    Indepth record on the Kali Yuga (puranas) and especially on the
    "twilight of the Kali Yuga" (started in 1945 when the 1st atomic
    bomb was detonated) when the knowledge of the gods is "stolen"
    (splitting the atom and genetic egineering) and the effects thereoff.

    1. Thanks for suggesting the book. I was not aware that Alain Danielou has also written on the yuga cycles. It sounds interesting, and I shall try to take a look.

  35. Your research was EXCELLENT . I have one doubt. In Satya Yuga there was no hatred, or vanity, or evil thought whatsoever; no sorrow. But Narasimha, the half-man/half-lion appeared in the Satya Yuga to kill Hiranyakashipu (An evil person lived in Satya Yuga).

    1. Thanks for your positive feedback. Regarding your question, my feeling is that Hiranyakashipu may have lived towards the end of the Satya yuga. The end of a yuga is always characterized by a sudden loss of morality and powers of judgement. Hiranyakashipu was himself a great asura, who had performed severe penances to please Brahma. Therefore, for him to behave in such an absurd manner shows a loss of mental capabilities triggered by an inflated ego . Similar events also took place at the end of the Treta when Ravana, who was otherwise a highly accomplished person, behaved irrationally under the influence of a bloated ego, and at the end of the Dwapara when Duryodhana behaved likewise. In addition, Vishnu always appears in the form of an Avatar towards the close of a yuga. So he appeared as Narashimha in Satya Yuga, Rama in Treta, and Krishna in Dwapara. As we know, he is prophesized to appear as Kalki at the end of the Kali Yuga .

  36. Read one of my close friend's blog its simply great like him -

    1. Hi, thanks for the link. I will surely check it out.

  37. An excellent article, with well researched and well presented arguments. It has given me much food for thought. Thank you.

    1. Thank you. I enjoyed going through your blog posts as well!

  38. hi bibhu
    A very interesting thing that I had noted in my life is that we see the world as We want to see. And in support of that we search numerous things and give them as proofs and presents a lot of controversial things from nowhere.
    You had written that 4:3:2:1 is erroneous, How can it be possible?

    You had written that Aryabhatta believed that all yugas are of equal duration, I suggest you that please read original aryabhatiya in sanskrit written by him. He had nowhere written yugs are of equal duration. Please don't interpret directly from English translations which have been modified under colonial rule (as you had described Kalki as comet). Also in one older translation in english in 1930 of Clarke, he has also mentioned that there is no indication of yugas of equal duration as hypothesized by Brahmagupta. But Clarke's translation has one more problem of 60*60 yrs that i writing in next paragraph.

    You had written about the age of aryabhatta is of 23 yrs old while writing in aryabhatiya. If a person is writing a text like aryabhatiya it is supposed to be grammatically correct. It may be possible that people in colonial rule had modified the original sanskrit in Aryabhatiya. You know as per one comment above that he is of 23 yrs old while writing aryabhatiya
    and he is in 60*60 yrs of kaliyug but it should be acutually 6*60 yrs in 'Shastyabdanam Shadbhiryada vyateetastra yascha yuga padah' but here it is interpreted as 'Shastyabdanam Shasti' and thus lead to the conclusion of 60*60 which is grammatically incorrect in writing this verse. I have a document which can explain you in detail how this is incorrect.

  39. hi again,
    Again it depends on you what you want to believe as you had written that you don't believe of aryabhatta's existense in BCE.
    Adi shankara is said to be born in modern history in 778 CE, as he has referred Dharamkirti in his texts which in turn is also referenced by a chinese traveller. But there can be two dharamkirtis and huen Tsang belong to a much later date. My point in including it is that Sri Chitsukhhacharya who was the disciple of Adi Shankara and written about him in 'The Brihat-Sankara—Vijaya' that he was born in 2593 years of kali as you can see here in-
    tishyae prayaatya nalasaevadhi baaNanaetrae |
    yae naMdanae dinamaNaa vudagadhvabhaaji |
    raadhae ditae ruDuvinirgatamangalagnae |
    syaahootavaan Sivaguruah sacha SaMkaraeti ||

    You can see the above verse from

    It means that he was born on around 509 BCE. The above 4,32,000 years duration of kali yug is too old. Although I am also curious to know about the age of kaliyug that's why i am seeing your blog.

    It is true that Yukteshwar Giri's dates have no references of 24,000 years that how he derived these dates and according to his calculations actually dwapara is the present age. In this your statement is right in your article. I have downloaded Holy science and after seeing it properly, I can know his basis in more detail but personally 24,000 yrs according to me is not known anywhere else.

    The dates and the thinking proposed by Tilak in the Arctic home of the Vedas has no firm ground. How did he deduce it? It is futile to give his reference. It seems that he is indirectly supporting Aryan Invasion theory as proposed by Max Mueller.

    You had written the mahabharat war to be 3711 BCE. But accorfing Dr. S.Balakrishna of NASA who had tried to search the two occurence of 2 eclipses in 13 days in Mahabharat the date is around 3129 BCJ. You can check about him on his simulation on the software at
    and there is also reference to other dates on

    1. 1. Aryabhatta, Paulisa and other astronomers of his time believed in yugas of equal duration as specified in "Alberuni's India". I have clearly mentioned this in the article. Yugas of equal duration of 3000 years can also be found in Zoroastrian accounts of the world ages. 4:3:2:1 ratio indicates the manner in which Dharma and the duration of lifespans decrease over the Yuga cycle, as specified in the Laws of Manu. Evidently, this was later applied to the yuga cycle, and incorporated in most texts.

      2. The argument for a BCE date for Aryabhatta is very flimsy, as I have mentioned in an earlier comment, and not backed by any written document. However, there is a valid argument for Shankaracharya being born in the 5th century BCE. This is a controversial topic, with strong arguments on both sides, and I dont have any specific opinion on the matter as of now. However, this has no bearing on the Yuga Cycle dates I have proposed here.

      3. The Yuga Cycle is of 12000 years as specified in the Mahabharata and the Laws of Manu. In addition, the yuga cycle sequence reverses itself as per the traditions of the Jains and the Greeks. This can be intuitively understood since all cycles of time move in ascending and descending cycles. This leads to a 24000 year Yuga Cycle period, as stated by Yukteswar, which is closely aligned to the Precessional Year.

      4. Tilak was one of the most reknowned Sanskrit scholars of the past century. His opinion carries a lot of weight. If you disregard him, it makes little difference to anyone.

      5.I have given two probable dates for the Mahabharata - 3711 BC (i.e. 35 years prior to 3676 BC) or 4011 BC (i.e. 35 years prior to 3976 BC, the beginning of the transitional period). There have been many attempts to date the Bharata war using astronomical alignments, with dates ranging from 5000 BC - 1000 BC. S. Balakrishna's dating is incorrect as pointed out by other scholars, since neither of the two eclipses he mentions could be seen from Kurukshetra. Besides, any dating attempt using eclipse data alone, is not going to give correct results, due to the uncertainties involved, the Delta T problem etc. Many scholars including Balakrishna, Achar etc. have not looked beyond 3500 BCE for dates of the Bharata War. They should be looking at least till 4200 BCE. However,I am not a great fan of determining past dates using astronomical software because of the uncertainities involved in the calculations. Besides,one can cherry pick data points, interpret them to one's own convenience, and thereby validate any date of one's liking. I have used archaeological, geological and calendrical evidence is support of the Yuga Cycle timeline I have proposed here, which is much more scientific, authentic and verifiable.

  40. Dear Sir,
    This article is excellent.
    May I ask you a question: is there any information in the scriptures about earth gravity changes through the Yugas, since we know there were times when gigantism prevailed?
    Also, as the gravity is related to the Earth diameter, can we assume the fact that the size of the Earth varies through Yugas?

    1. Hello,
      Interesting points. I believe that its possible that the earth's gravity has fluctuated over time, as a result of which human beings and animals with larger bodies were present on the earth in the past. Even during the last ice age we had massive wooly mammoths and sabre toothed tigers - species which are no longer found today.

      As to what may cause this gravitational fluctuation is uncertain. The factors involved in the gravitational force equation are mass i.e. volume*density, radius and the gravitational constant G. Any of these may be fluctuating over time i.e. the earth's diameter may change, its average density may change, or the gravitational constant G may not really be a constant over time, and may have small fluctuations around a mean value.

      We dont know what determines the value of the gravitational constant G. Currently it is emperically determined. Perhaps there are cosmic factors which determines its value, and when these cosmic factors change during the yuga cycle, G also changes. I am more inclined to believe that instead of the diameter or density of the earth changing, it is the gravitational constant G which changes over time.

  41. dear sir, i have heard a lot of people on the internet talking about the aryan invasion, i don't understand any of it, could you please explain what really happened ? thank you, and keep up the great work

    1. Hello,
      When the Indus Valley civilization collapsed at around 1900 BC, there was a migration of various Vedic tribes in all directions. Many of them entered the Gangetic plains and moved southwards along the coastal areas. The current civilization of India is, therefore, a legacy of the Vedic culture of the Indus Valley. However, during the colonial period there was an effort to show that the high culture of India, and the Sanskrit language, was brought into India by a horde of nomadic "Aryan" tribes who came from some unknown location in Central Asia, close to Eastern Europe. There is no linguistic, historical, archaeological or genetic evidence in favour of such a hypothesis, and it has been widely discarded now. If you want to know more details you can refer to the various articles on this matter on the internet.

  42. u shud hav multiplied 3000 by 360...bcoz 1divine year=360 human years..y didnt u multiply?

    1. The Yuga Cycle is of 12000 years duration and not 12000*360 years. I have mentioned the reasons in the article itself. Two of the most ancient Sanskrit texts, the Mahabharata and the Laws of Manu still specify the yuga duration as 12000 years. This could not have been an oversight, and it implies that the numbers in the other texts must have been inflated. Besides, many other cultures such as the Chaldeans, Greeks and Zoroastrians believed in a 12000 year duration of the yugas (or thereabouts). Since the religious and cosmological beliefs of the ancient world were quite uniform, and everyone practised a form of the Primordial Tradition (or Sanatana Dharma), this provides additional evidence in support of a 12000 year yuga cycle.
      It can also be deduced from the information in the Mahabharata. As per the ancient records, Lord Krishna, Balarama and the Pandava brothers lived for nearly 125 years at the close of the Dwapara Yuga. This means the average duration of life in the Dwapara must have been around 200 years, as specified in the Laws of Manu. There were roughly 25 generations between Rama and Krishna as per the genealogical records of the Puranas. If the average lifetime is 200 years, then the average duration of rule for a king can be taken as roughly 100 years. This means the duration of the Dwapara would be roughly 25*100 i.e. 2500 years. This agrees very closely with the 2700 year duration of the Saptarshi Cycle.
      What this means is that a "divine year" equals a solar year. Later the multiplication factor of 360 years was introduced, when people forgot the underlying calendric basis of the yuga cycle in the confusion of the Kali Yuga.

  43. hello Bibhu Dev Misra,

    The article and research is all done ok, but I think they are all wrong, if you agree that Lord Krishna , Balarama and Pandava lived for nearly 125 years, which is correct as per Puranas, specially Bhagwat Puran, than you should also agree that Lord Rama ruled Ayodhya for 13000 years as per the same text!. Yes, it sound impossible. I will explain, first of your explanation that all the kings before Lord Krishna were of only 200 years is absolutely wrong, The age limit and the height strength of people and kings increases drastically as we go upwards to Satya Yuga or the Golden Age. You can refer an interesting story of solar King Muchukunda, king of Treta Yuga.

    He was in kind of hibernation kind of state for million of years. When he went outside in Dwarpa Yuga, he observed immense decrease in sizes and strength of the entire nature. The cause was gradual decay of age limit and nature, just like a radioactive material left in open. Also all the solar kings ruled for atleast 10,000 years in Tretya Yuga, before the Lunar kings. You can refer the exact years count along with the King name from Bhavishya Purana. Also, the end of Kali Yuga is after 1200 years, that are divine years which is mentioned clearly in all Puranas that these 1200 are the divine years and each divine year contain 360 earth years. You can check in Bhagwat, Vishnu, Matsya Puranas etc., Also all Puranas and specially Kalki Purana mentions clearly that Kaliyuga would be ended by Lord Kalki(avatar of Lord Krishna) after about 4 lakh years. And he along with last solar and lunar kings will kill Demons named Kok-Vikoka . And He shall rule earth for 1000 years. Also, in Holy Bible, a similar account is mentioned. "After 1000 years, destruction shall be leashed upon earth from heaven. The Demons named Gog and Magog( observe that it is similar to Kok-Vikok) shall create destruction over earth. And then Christ and his saints will destroy the evil. And Jesus Christ will remain over earth over 1000 years". Here the above first 1000 years are I suppose, you can guess that they are divine years as per heaven,so 1000 divine years=360,000 years. So, what can you say about the so much extra-ordinary similarity between the scriptures of two totally different religions in terms of space and time. You can also, see the Kristos-Christ-Krishna similarity over internet.

    And. the Puranas, mentioned that as long Bhakti stands, neither kaliyug will end not satyug will start. These are 4 legs of Dharma, the Sanatan Dharma(true name of Hindu religion) of the Aryavrata(noble ones of ancient India), the true religion, other legs being Bharamcharya and Tapsya. So there is no way Kaliyug will end as long as their are devotees in temples, churches, mosques. It is when people would have lost faith in the name of God and the average age of a human would be mere 20-25 years and average height less than 5 feet and IQ of humans will degrade to that of animals, than only Dark Kaliyug is up which it seems that in no way occur for atleast 1 lakh years. So, i would just say to all that not to doubt the scriptures of the oldest religion that were written for the preservation of true Dharma and religion that is eternal

    and quoting from Lord Krishna Himself:-

    "BG 4.40: But ignorant and faithless persons who doubt the revealed scriptures do not attain God consciousness; they fall down. For the doubting soul there is happiness neither in this world nor in the next."

  44. Much of what you have mentioned in your reply is inaccurate. Firstly, the Bhagava Gita states: "But the ignorant, indecisive and lacking in faith waste their lives. They can never be happy in this world or the next." (4.40). It does not talk of "revealed scriptures". In any case, the Puranas are "Smriti" texts and are NOT considered as revealed texts i.e. "Sruti". Only the Vedas, Gita and the Upanishads are considered Sruti, and they do not talk of yuga cycle durations.
    The Puranas and many other Smriti texts have been put down in writing between the 1st - 10th century AD, and all scholars agree that they contain significant interpolations i.e. late additions and modifications. Therefore, they cannot even be considered as "Vedic texts", since a lot of information has been added in the Kali Yuga.
    You are saying that the kings of the Treta Yuga ruled for 10,000 years. This information is from the Bhagavata Purana. According to the same text, the average lifespan in the Dwapara was 1000 years. Since there are 25 generations between Rama and Krishna, this will make the duration of the Dwapara as 25,000 years. But as per the puranas it should be 2000*360 i.e. 864,000 years. Can you see the inconsistency here? You have also mentioned that Kalki will rule for 1000 years after he re-establishes dharma. This is consistent with a yuga cycle duration of 12000 years, and not 12000*360 years.
    Although the Puranas certainly contain a core element of truth which has been carried forward from the Vedic period, it has been covered by many layers of untruths. This is why there many different versions of the yuga cycle durations, the age of human beings in each age etc. One, therefore, has to carefully filter out the true information, by using information various many different sources and scientific disciplines.
    As I have shown in the article, the yuga duration of 3000 years tracked using the Saptarshi Calendar of 2700 years conforms to the historical and archeological records. In addition, the human longetivity of 400, 300, 200 and 100 years as mentioned in the Laws of Manu are also consistent with the yuga durations, and the ages of Krishna and the Pandava brothers. Obviously, Rama could not have ruled for 10,000 years, if the duration of the yuga was itself of 2700 years. I also want to point out that the lowest point of the Kali Yuga was in the period between 976-676 BC, during the transition from the descending to the ascending cycle, when hman mortality was indeed close to 30 years, and many places of the world even forgot to to read and write, and lived like animals. We are past the lowest point, and are now about to evolve into the asceding Dwapara Yuga, a time of enlightened consciousness.
    Unfortunately, you have chosen to ignore the evidence, and simply repeat the inflated yuga durations and other inaccurate data, which I have already refuted in the article and my previous comments. Repeating incorrect data will not make it correct, nor will it lead to "god consciousness". However, it is your choice what you want to believe. If you do not have anything new to add, let us not take this discussion any further.

  45. Hi,
    I liked your article and would like to share with you the following information provided by an Iranian in comments to you tube video "Myths of mankind-Mahabharata" : "I was a US Marine and I can tell you this much after my couple of trips to antactica expidition: Vedic philosophies are NOT, and I reprat, NOT a myth. There is so much we still have to learn. What I saw, I was from that point, a proud Vedic/ Hindu/ Aryan (whatever they call the one who believes in Vedas). The technological superiority they had ~12,000 years ago is not even 1/100th of what we have achieved in this 12,000 years of Kali Yuga."
    He said he is not allowed to reveal the details of what he saw in the Antarctica. On searching in the Internet, I found out that some interesting findings were made, but as usual suppressed by the powers-that-be (including the US, ofcourse). Are you aware of this?

  46. Hi again,

    from the same Iranian commentor : "Unfortunately,I can't spill the beans on that one. What we saw, we all were amazed by that. All I can tell you is that the vedic civilization was not just limited to India (the greater Aryan Empire which includes alot of other nations) and Eastern Europe alone. This included communication from beings of other planets and planetary systems as well. I think they used to be called "Devas". They possessed much greater technologies which were later simplified to explain others after the great Maha bharat war. Example, invoking a weapon by some wireless technology was mentioned as invoking the weapons by reciting some mantras.

    So you're Indian, I suggest you read the detailed versions of the puranas. But sorry dude,can't say what we saw."

    interesting, isnt it? Hope the day when all this would be public would come soon.

    1. It is true that the ancient Sanskrit texts talk of the existence of advanced technologies, and interactions with beings from other dimensions, in the previous yugas. But I dont understand why the Iranian commentator refused to reveal what he saw, or was prevented from doing so. Isn't it possible that he is just making it up?

  47. There are 4320000 years in a Chaturyuga, and that is correct. Here are lines from Bhagwat Geeta by Shri Krishna,

    By human calculation, a thousand ages(1000 Chaturyugas) taken together form the duration of Brahmä’s one day. And such also is the duration of his night.

    At the beginning of Brahmä’s day, all living entities become manifest from unmanifest state, and thereafter, when the night falls, they are merged into the unmanifest again.

    Again and again, when Brahmä’s day arrives, all living entities come into being, and with the arrival of Brahmä’s night they are
    helplessly annihilated.

    That means only 1000 kaliyuga are possible in 1 day of Brahma. Also, as per science the oldest life form on earth is about 2 billion years old. And as per all the Hindu scriptures, we are in 7th manvantar , that means 6 have already gone, and each manvantar contains 71 chaturyuga(and 71 kaliyugas). So, 426 chaturyugas are already done and 27 chaturyugas of 7th manvantar, that is equivalent to 453 chaturyugas and when we take 4320000 in one chaturyuga.

    452*4320000= 1952640000 ~ 2 billion years

    As per Sri Krishna statement in 8.18, only manifestion of life form can happen in the day of Brahma, so either you say science is wrong or say that Sri Krishna is wrong. So we have to agree, that about 450 chaturyugas are already gone, as per Shri Krishna statement 8.17, only 1000 chaturyugas are possible in each kalpa. So, stop misguiding people.

    1. The earliest life forms on earth are 3.5 billion years old. A simple check on the internet will confirm that. So your argument does not hold.
      On the other hand if we take the duration of a yuga cycle as 12,000 years, then a Day of Brahma is of 12 million years duration, and a night of Brahma stretches for another 12 million years. Thus, the duration of a Day and Night of Brahma becomes 24 million years, which corresponds very closely with the 26 million year mass extinction cycle. The previous dates of mass extinction can be obtained very accurately by following the information in the Vishnu Purana, and there is an exact match with the extinction event that wiped out the dinosaurs.
      I have discussed these correlations in detail in my article: "A Day and Night of Brahma: The Evidence from Fossil Records"

  48. This earliest life form of 3.5 billion years old is just a guess and part of the popular inappropriate darwin theory and there is no evidence for it as their is no standard dating method that could tell us the exact age of things that are older than million years, so what to say about billion years. The oldest human artifact ever found is about 2 billion years old. You can find its entire information along with the evidences, logical dating method and their current location in the book Forbidden Archaeology and Human Devolution: A Vedic Alternative to Darwin's Theory by the famous author Michael Cremo. I hope that you donot believe that we have evolved from monkeys.

    Here is Cremo's Interview link:-

    And about the mass extinction, these have been always happening whenever manvantar or yuga changes.

    1. Cremo is talking of the oldest "human made artifacts" which go back "more than" 2 billion years ago. This does not mean the appearance of the first life forms. Please try to understand the difference. The oldest life forms found in the fossil records are microbial communities which appeared around 3.5 billion years ago. The dating of fossils has got nothing to do with the theory human evolution, and the dating methods are reasonably accurate, although they may not be exact. In fact, I have read Cremo's book and referred to his finding in my article on evolution - "The Evolutionary Cycles Of Creation and Catastrophe: The Case for Intelligent Design?". His research supports the 12000 year yuga cycle as well.

      Overall there is not a shred of scientific evidence which supports the yuga cycle duration of 12000*360 years. As I have pointed out in this article, there is considerable historical, archeological and geological evidence which supports a yuga cycle duration of 12000 years. In addition, the 24 million years duration of the Day and Night of Brahma is closely approximated by the 26 million year mass extinction cycle, and the information in the Vishnu Purana can even be used as a predictive tool. It shows the extremely sophisticated level of scientific information that can be derived from the Sanskrit texts, once we move away from the imaginary inflated yuga durations of 12000*360 years.

      If you wish to comment further on this, please read the articles on the Day and Night of Brahma and Evolutionary Cycles that I have referred. Otherwise there is no point in carrying on this discussion.

  49. First of all as per Bhagwat Geeta, in the night of Brahma, Lord Brahma sleeps that means the designer of the universe is sleeping, so when the creator himself sleeps then there is no way any of the smallest of microbe or any fossil fuel could exist while the nature itself sleeps, as almost everything is dead at night of Brahma, even the humans, animals etc,. Also the earth falls fall from its revolution circle and falls into some unknown sea of darkness. Whenever Brahma wakes, he creates everything from 0, this is mentioned in all Puranas as this is very common question asked by many saintly scholars throughout Puranic scriptures.

    Second, Michael Cremo has given list of evidences based on dating methods( sedimentary deposit aging method). and tried to
    show that humans like us had existing back 2 billion years ago from today, it is same time that all the life forms started across all realms including microbes etc.,. But whatever we are taught in text books, that monkey turned into ape than into human, has totally misguided the mankind today and make them beleive that they are just animals with a motive to produce and consume. Here are Cremo's interview link:-

    Once you go through them, than you may realize that today's science is being so much censored that you can not blindly believe in the facts that our available on the internet (not even on your school's science text book). There is lot of money invested on the science and its equipments. It is a business of knowledge and money and is based on concept of produce-consume and there is hell lot of knowledge filtering and knowledge manipulation so that it can fit the Darwin's Theory.

    If you still do not believe than it is your choice my friend, than there is also no point of carrying on discussion from my side too.

    1. As I mentioned earlier, I have read Cremo's book and referred to his findings in my article. There is nothing further for us to discuss here. Thank you.

  50. I will consider that kali yuga is coming to an end the day islam starts declining..lolz anyways gr8 job sir

    1. Thanks. I understand that you made the comment about islam in jest, but we should realize that the spiritual decadence of the kali yuga can be seen in all cultures and societies of the world - some more, some less. If we are indeed ending the kali yuga in 2025, then it is time for everyone to introspect, re-evaluate their life purpose and activate their higher consciousness.

  51. Ya but what about the 10000 year golden age within kaliyuga..Sri Krishna also said after that all people left will be cruel..but according to your theory after 10000 years we will be in descending satyuga..let me introduce u some value of righteousness just for lets assume the value of righteousness is between 90 n100 in during ascending satyuga the value goes from 90 to 100 whereas during descending sayuga it goes from100 to 90..only order is reversed..u cannot say that descending satyuga will be bad will be same as ascending kaliyuga with order will be a good age.dis contradicts with Sri Krishnas statement.

    1. I think you have asked me this question earlier, in the discussions section of my article on "Hercules and Balarama". My answer remains the same, which is as follows:

      Lord Krishna says that "For 10,000 years of Kali such devotees of Mine will be present on earth. After the departure of My devotees there will be only one varna". This implies that at the end of 10,000 years there will be no "caste distinction". The text does not talk of only cruel people remaining. The absence of caste distinction is understandable, since at the peak of the Golden Age all men will be equally saintly.

      The text also states that at the end of 10,000 years the devotees of the Lord will leave the planet. This suggests the end of the ascending cycle and the beginning of the descending cycle. Even though the Satya Yuga will be present, it will be in the descending cycle, and therefore truth, wisdom and virtue will be on a downward slide.

  52. First of all I don't get why people are so happy with kaliyuga ending. Gautum Buddha : This world is full of sufferings.
    Bhagavad Geeta : This world is painful, non eternal, temporary and for the sinners. The true home lies in Sri Bhagawan's abode.
    So we have to attain God. Don't be so happy with satyayuga and tretayuga. DON'T FORGET KALIYUGA WILL AGAIN COME. So better unify with God rather than celebrating -_-

  53. Also please change the title to 'end of kaliyuga in 2325' not 2025 because the final end to kaliyuga will come in 2325.

    1. I can understand why many people would be happy with the approaching end of the kali yuga - it would signal an end to the greed, exploitation, wars, crimes and atrocities committed on a daily basis by people around the world. The end of the yuga will not lead to anyone's salvation. But it will, eventually, bring about a far more peaceful, nurturing, and harmonious way of living, where everyone can fulfill their soul-purpose. It is for the same reason that people feel happy and relieved when they move out of a particularly bad phase of their lives, and enter into a more fulfilling and satisfying state of being. However, liberation from the cycle of birth and death is the ultimate objective as you mentioned, and we should all strive towards that goal, irrespective of the state of our living conditions.

      Regarding the end date of 2025: I have mentioned in some of the earlier comments that the 300 year period of transition can be broken up into 2 periods of 150 years each. The first 150 years is the "twilight of Kali" when the kali yuga structures will collapse, and the next 150 years is the "dawn of Dwapara" when the systems and structures of the new yuga will begin to take shape. Therefore, technically speaking, Kali Yuga will end completely 150 years after 2025 i.e. in 2175. However, from our perspective 2025 is a far more important date, for if the calculations are correct, it would imply that we are heading into an unprecedented period of change for the next 150 years, which would dramatically change our way of life and our environment. It is important to be aware of this possibility, so that we are mentally prepared to deal with the changes.

    2. I also want to add that the "transitional period" , is traditionally not considered as a part of the yuga. All the Sanskrit texts mention the yuga durations and transitional periods separately. So, the Kali Yuga does end in 2025 (assuming the calculations are correct), and the kali yuga "sandhya" i.e. twilight stretches for another 150 years.

  54. Hello Bibhu,

    Hope you're doing fine. Following is a response from someone on FB when I referred to them, your article suggesting equal duration Yugas :
    Thanks for posting excellent research article Virendra. It has lots of classical references for yuga cycle. However, this articles lacks in any astronomical reasoning. The reason the yugas are divided in the ratio of 4:3:2:1 is based in astronomy. Yugas are formed because of sun and sirius orbiting in their own orbits as binary stars. Yugas are divided based on the consciousness density. Satya yuga has a peak cosnciousness density of 100%, treta 75%, dwapara 50% and kaliyuga 25%. Because of the sun sirius orbit, for this consciousness density to be classified as yuga, the division of time must be 4:3:2:1 ratio. This video beautifully describes, why the yugas should be divided in this ratio:
    This took place at -


    1. Hi Virendra,

      Nice video. However, our Sun does not have a binary companion star (Sirius or any other star). Any astonomer will tell you that. The idea of the Sun-Sirius binary system is a modern myth, and it has no scientific basis.

      Actually, binary star systems are quite common in our universe. The possibility that our Sun may have a binary companion was proposed way back in 1984, when Davis, Hut, and Muller had proposed the "Nemesis hypothesis" to explain the 26 million year cycle of mass extinctions. They had suggested that our Sun may have a companion star with a 26 Myr cycle, which periodically disturbs the comets in the Oort cloud that surrounds our Solar System, with a consequential increase in impact events on Earth.

      According to their estimates, "Nemesis" was probably at a distance of 3 light years, and may be a red dwarf star. One of the arguments against the Nemesis hypothesis was that it requires a highly elleptical orbit (i.e. high orbital
      eccentricity) which will be inherently unstable against perturbations from passing stars and molecular clouds. Till now, inspite of extensive sky surveys, no companion star of the Sun has been found. Hence, the possibility of a binary companion has been rejected by the scientific community. In other words, if our Sun had a binary companion, we would have found it by now.

      In addition, if our Sun had a binary companion with a orbital period of only 26,000 years (a thousand times less than the 26 million year period of Nemesis), it would have been located very close to the solar system, and been visible with the naked eye. But Sirius is more than 8 light years away - simply too far away to be a binary companion. We should also remember that our solar system is revolving around the center of our galaxy at roughly 220 km/sec, and it also moves up and down the galactic plane, and towards and backwards from the galactic center at much slower speeds (5-20 km/sec). It is difficult to imagine the solar system also revolving around a binary companion, in addition to these movements.

      So, to sum it up, the Sun does not have a binary companion, and hence it cannot be tied to the Yuga Cycle. And even if there was a binary companion (for the sake of argument), it would not bring about yuga Durations in the 4:3:2:1 ratio. That is an incorrect statement. However, there would be a progressive decrease in human consciousness, dharma, and human logetivity over the cycle, as mentioned in the Sanskrit texts, and this reduction in human consciousness takes place as per this 4:3:2:1 ratio. Sometime after the 5th century AD, this ratio was also applied to the yuga durations, when people forgot the underlying basis of the yuga cycle.

    2. The truth is, we do not know what astronomical phenomenon brings about the Cycle of the Ages. What is apparent, however, is that there was an excellent "astronomical clock" for tracking the yuga cycle in the form of the Saptarshi Calendar. As the seven stars of the Great Bear constellation cycle through the 27 nakshatras i.e. lunar asterisms, staying in each nakshatra for a 100 years, it completes a 2700 year cycle which was known as the "Saptarsi Yuga". This 2700 year cycle, along with a 300 year transition period, was used for tracking the yuga cycle.

      There are many reasons as to why I believe that the Saptarshi Cycle is the correct basis for the yuga cycle framework. I will list them out for greater clarity.

      1. The Yuga cycle must have been tracked using some sort of a calendar, and we know that the Saptarshi calendar was used for thousands of years,and its beginnings can be traced back to the time of Rama.
      2. The Saptarshi's are said to appear at the beginning of a yuga to promulgate the laws of civilization. Therefore, it makes sense that the starting point of a new cycle of the Saptarshis indicates the beginning of a yuga.
      3. The 2700 year cycle of the Saptarshi's was known as a "Saptarsi Yuga" - which points to the Yuga Cycle.
      4. If we use the Saptarshi Calendar, then the duration of the yuga cycle, excluding the transitional periods, works out to 2700*4 i.e. 10,800 years. This is exactly the same as the duration of a great year of Heraclitus among the Greeks. This indicates that the same model was followed in India and Greece.
      5. We have a Saptarshi Cycle starting in 6676 BC,and the Saptarshi Cycle for the Kali Era started in 3676 BC when the Saptarshi's were in Rohini as stated by Dr.Mitchiner. This indicates that a transitional period of 300 years was added to the end of the Saptarshi Cycle. This definitely indicates that this calendar was used for tracking a yuga duration of 3000 years.
      6. The yuga cycle timeline proposed using the Saptarshi cycle also coincides with dates for the jewish calendar, christian calendar etc.
      7. Plus we have the archeological evidence of cataclysms (pralaya) at the transitional period between the yugas.

      On the other hand, the 4:3:2:1 sequence has virtually nothing in its favor except the fact that it is mentioned in some sanskrit texts.But we know that these texts were all modified till the 10th century AD, as a result of which the yuga durations were inflated by multiplying by 360, and the concept of the ascending/descending cycles was lost. The equal duration principle supported by Aryabhatta and Paulisa makes much more sense, and the Saptarshi Calendar provides the right mechanism for tracking the yuga cycle.

    3. I also want to add that the "Romaka Siddhanta" contains a Yuga Cycle of 2850 years. This can be recognized as the sum of a Saptarsi Cycle of 2700 years, and a yuga sandhya i.e. twilight of 150 years. This shows that both the Saptarsi cycle as well as the concept of a 150 years yuga sandhya was known to asronomers of the 5th century AD.

  55. Let us assume for a moment that your predictions are correct.By that logic we all wont be alive by 2175. In our next life we will be a bird or animal or insect. As it is mentioned in our texts that we go through 8.4 million different species to finally get a human life. So this article actually saddens me:-(

    1. Hello,
      Irrespective of whether the kali yuga ends in 2175 or not, you will still not be alive in 2175. You will either be in an alternate realm of existence or reincarnate again as a human being and go through many cycles of birth and death until you achieve moksha. So nothing to feel sad about.
      In any case, the end of the kali yuga does not imply the destruction of all living beings but a collapse of civilization and a reduction in the number of living beings due to the environmental calamities. Many people will survive these calamities, and they will form the root race of the new yuga. This is what is mentioned in the ancient texts as well.

    2. Hi Bibhu,

      Great work. It seems you have done a lot of research on this. Let me congratulate Mr. Anonymous too for asking some relevant doubts and again, Mr. Bibhu for answering them rationally.

      I have one doubt regarding this reincarnation. Let me quote your line itself, "You will either be in an alternate realm of existence or reincarnate again as a human being and go through many cycles of birth and death until you achieve moksha". What makes you think that a human will be re-incarnated as a human itself. Because I have read in the spiritual books that the next birth will be based on your "karma" of the present birth. While at the same time, in Dr. Weiss' book many lives many masters, no reference is given wherein a person is born as some other creature. Can you please throw some light upon this?

    3. Hello Anup,
      Thanks for your comment. You are right in saying that our next birth will depend on our accumulated karma. This is very clearly mentioned in the Gita, where reincarnation has been discussed in a few places. When Arjuna asks Krishna what happens to people who have faith, but have wandered from the path of yoga, this is what Krishna says:

      "When such people die they go to other realms where the righteous live. They dwell there for countless years and then are reborn into a home which is pure and prosperous. Or they may be born into a family where meditation is practiced; to be born into such a family is extremely rare. The wisdom they have acquired in previous lives will be awakened, and they will strive even harder for Self-Realization. Indeed they will be driven on by the strength of their past displines."

      Elsewhere, Krishna says that those who die in a state of sattva (wisdom, happines) attain the pure worlds of the wise. Those dying in rajas (desire, attachment) are reborn among people driven by work. But those who die in tamas (ignorance, lethargy) are conceived in the wombs of the ignorant.

      My point is that, nowhere does it state in the Gita that a human being may incarnate as an animal. Therefore, I do not entertain that possibility. If you think about it, humans have attained the peak of mental evolution, from where we can explore both the outer world and the inner realms in a manner that no other animal can. The human existence is a previous gift, from where it is just one leap to the state of immortality. I do not think that a person can devolve from the state of a human being to that of animals, unless he has repeatedly committed some grievous unpardonable crime, thereby completely violating his humanity. Such cases will be rare, perhaps occuring only in the Kali Yuga. In general, I believe, it is an upward curve from the state of humans to that of the gods.

    4. Amazing article, and great reply, with the interpretation of Karma philosophy. Completely agreed! Thanks for all your efforts for writing such an insightful article, and for sharing with everyone. Great service to humanity, cheers!

    5. Thanks Neha for your kind words and for being appreciative of the article. Very happy to receive your feedback. Best, Bibhu.

  56. Hi D,

    Thanks for sharing the link. The 2030 date is interesting. I had mentioned in one of my earlier comments that Alice Bailey, who was a member of the Theosophical Society, had mentioned in her books that "Christ" or "Maitreya" would return to the physical plane after 2025 AD. Bailey had claimed to have received her information from the Tibetan Master Djwal Khul, so her information is from Eastern sources.

    The 2025 date exactly matches the date I have arrived at from my calculations. As per Hindu tradition, the Avatar arrives during the period of transition, so in that respect Baileys statement that the Christ/Maitreya will arrive "after" 2025 is significant. She also states that reign of the Avatar will continue for 2500 years, which is closely aligned to the 2700 year duration of the Saptarsi Cyce.

    You might like to check out this link for more information:


  57. Hello Bibhu

    Recently, something interesting caught my attention. This is about some future predictions by Billy Meir and his some alien contacts. I hope it might interest you as well. Here is the link:

    1. Most of these predictions can be shown to be incorrect by a simple fact checking. Besides, what kind of predictions come with caveats like "this can be prevented if precautionary actions are taken"? Thats not a prediction. Its a feeling. Everyone has them. I generally distrust anything to do with alien contacts in the present day and age. They are either made up or hallucinations. What I have read here vindicates my belief.

    2. Well, I was lead to Billy Meir case when I watched a movie by Texas researcher Edward T Martin who is writer of a book:-
      King of Travelers: Jesus Lost years in India

      Here is his site's link:

      And a documentary on all his research:

      And here is the interview where he discussed Billy Meir Case:

      So, all of you can try watching this and decide yourself later.

    3. @Anonymous
      Until someone can prove otherwise, I consider "Billy" Meyer a nutcase. Anyway, this is noise. What matters is how YOU or I feel. And what I feel is that we are caught in a roller coaster, and we are about to say bye bye to modern civilization. Let's rejoice that we can "plant the seeds" for a true healing of humankind. The latter must reintegrate the world community of life. The current insanity must stop eventually but it will take that we hit bottom ... it's coming. Embrace the change, help it happen, meditate, be truly good.

  58. Hello Sir,
    A very interesting article I must say,
    What do you think will happen during the transition phase?(from 2025)?
    Do you think all human technological advancement will be lost? Do you think societies revert back to monarchies and kingdoms? and also what is your opinion on Astral realm? and also do you believe there will be some places where life will thrive if Kalki is indeed a comet? and what is your opinion about the case of ashwathama? he was cursed to suffer till the end of kali yuga right???

    Awaiting your reply

    1. Hello Ravi,
      Interesting questions. I believe that the technology of the new yuga will be primarily mental in nature. Great power will be invested in the hands of spiritually enlightened people, so that they are not misused and are directed towards the welfare of all living beings. The technological progress of the kali yuga causes great harm and destruction in many forms, and will be irrelevant in the new yuga.

      Societies may go back to monarchies, and may be ruled by sage-kings, where the king is divinely ordained and possesses great mental, physical and spiritual powers which puts him above the masses.

      Astral realms exist, but they cannot be viewed with the naked eye or with our telescopes.

      Kalki will come to eradicate evil from the world, and establish the foundations of the new yuga. Since evil is dispersed throughout the world, every region on the planet will face the impact of his arrival - probably some more and some less. It is impossible to say which regions will be impacted more or less than others.

      Ashwathama was cursed to roam the planet for 3000 years after the end of Dwapara. That ended around 976 BC. Besides, I doubt whether these things can be taken literally. He might have gone through many conscutive cycles of birth and death before going back to the astral realms. I dont think anyone can live for 3000 years in the kali yuga.

    2. Thank you for replying sir,
      but,I came across this

      "Ashwathama had a Mani (gem) since his birth in his forehead which used to protect him from the fear of any snakes, ghosts, demigods and demons. Lord Sri Krishna asked Ashwatthama to surrender this Mani (gem) & took it from him. Lord Sri Krishna further said that “the wound caused by the removal of this Mani (gem) on his forehead will never heal and he will suffer from leprosy and wound in his forehead will always seep blood and Puss, thus arousing a foul smell till the end of Kaliyuga”. So in this way, Ashwathama will be in search of death every moment, and yet he will never die. At the end of Kali Yuga, Ashwathama shall meet God Sri Kalki, the tenth avatar of Lord Vishnu.”

      That means he should be alive right? and also what are your thoughts about Sri Parasurama?, he is one of chiranjeevi and he is supposed to be the one who directs kalki to do a penance to obtain Divine Wepons...How does that fit into your thoery of Kalki being a Comet?

      Thank you for taking time to reply

    3. This is the exact translation of Sri Krishna's curse (as per the translation of K.M. Ganguli): "For 3,000 years thou shalt wander over this earth, without a companion and without being able to talk with anyone. Alone and without anybody by thy side, thou shalt wander through diverse countries, O wretch, thou shalt have no place in the midst of men. The stench of pus and blood shall emanate from thee, and inaccessible forests and dreary moors shall be thy abode! Thou shalt wander over the Earth, O thou of sinful soul, with the weight of all diseases on thee."

      The mention of 3000 years further supports my contention that each yuga is of equal duration of 3000 years. As I mentioned earlier, the period of 3000 years was over in 976 BC. It also appears that Ashwathama was cursed to live like a "ghost" or "spirit" in the kali yuga, and not as a mortal. This is evident from the nature of the curse. The average liefspan in the kali yuga is 100 years, and all human beings are subject to the yuga dharma - no one is beyond it. So I certainly do not believe that Aswathama lived as a mortal for 3000 years, or is alive today.

      The concept of seven Chiranjivi's (immortals) is same as the concept of the seven rishis i.e. Saptarshis - who are the mind-born, immortal sons of Brahma. Many different sets of names have been proposed for the seven Chiranjivi's as well as the Saptarsi's which indicates that our scriptures have subjected to many different alterations over the years. The Saptarsi's do not reside on the earth, but in the upper planetary spheres, very close to the realm of Brahma. It is quite possible that the Saptarsi's may interact with Kalki, since Kalki will be instrumental in ending evil on the earth, while the Saptarsi's will incarnate subsequently to promulgate the laws of civilization. However, such interactions will take place in the astal realms, beyond our awareness or knowledge.

  59. No.Man.
    In our texts it is written that a human life is obtained by God's mercy for a person who has been a great human being.
    Even the number '84 lakhs' has been mentioned.
    that after these many lives as animals,insects,etc we get a human life.
    But you said that we are again born as humans. :/

    1. We evolve from lower life forms, but nowhere is it written that we devolve to lower life forms based on our karma.

    2. Yes, we DO devolve to lower life forms based on our Evil karmas. Check Srimad Bhagavatam.
      I don't remember the exact chapter right now, most probably somewhere in Fifth or Second "Skanda" t has been explained.
      I am not very sure whether its in Gita too...can't remember.
      But we do born in animal / lower "Yonis" based on our negative deeds, that's for sure!

    3. Nothing is mentioned in the Gita. I will appreciate if you can provide specific references from other texts.

    4. BDM,

      "Nothing is mentioned in the Gita."

      (1) What does Chapter 14 Verse 15 explains?
      (Few examples,
      ...and so on)

      (2) Have you read the story of King Bharat in Srimad Bhagavatam? That is, what happened after his death?
      Please read it in "detail".

      3) Now, forget about religious Scriptures for a moment. You are an IITian - computer consultant, right?
      What should you call a person who has done multiple murders (from greed + anger) and/or Rapes and/or other horrendous tasks in his life???
      I would call him a homo-sapien with Animal instinct! Plain & simple.
      Now, what does your Logical deduction judge him to be in his next birth, provided, IF you really believe in re-incarnations??? (Don't bring our Law & Order into the scene for a moment, while judging/deducing).

      BTW, there are a lot more authentic (Sastras) texts/books regarding this birth due to Karmas ;-)

    5. I was asked similar questions earlier. Please read my responses from July 8, 2014 and July 29, 2014. In fact, I had even mentioned the same Gita verse which you cited here. This verse, like many others in the Gita, talks of reincarnation, but does not say that a person devolves to an animal state.

      I had mentioned in my earlier responses that it may be possible that a person who has repeatedly committed some unpardonable crime to devolve to an animal state. That statement is based on my judgement and rational thinking. It need not be correct though. Although I would like to believe that some of the stray dogs were murderers or corrupt politicians in their previous lives, that would reflect my egoic thinking more than anything else.

      The universe has been created out of pure, unconditional love, for the evolution of all souls. The idea is not to judge and punish, but to put us in the "appropriate conditions" in which we may lean from our past mistakes and overcome our ego blockages. So a murderer or a rapist may still be born as a human, but he will be put in circumstances where he will be forced to control his anger and lust, and thereby overcome some of these ego-attributes, at least to some extent.

      If you think about it, even Valmiki was a dacoit and a murderer, before he was rejected by his own family members. This compelled him to turn to meditation and become a saint. So even a murderer can attain the heights of spiritual realization, in a single lifetime. The Creator understands the requirements for our evolution and creates the right circumstances for each us. He looks upon all of us equally, as his own children. However, since we do not possess the wisdom and unconditional love of the Creator, it would not be right for us to pass judgments on the destinies of other souls.

    6. You are interpreting the verses of Gita according to your own rationality, judgement & likeness!

      You said,
      "This verse, like many others in the Gita, talks of reincarnation, but does not say that a person devolves to an animal state".
      Really??? Then what does it convey?
      Can you please show/refer me an explanation (in the internet at least) where it says a person do NOT Re-incarnates into a Lower Yoni due to his/her "Tamas" actions???

      You are citing the example of Valmiki. So all murderers and/or Pedophiles will become Valmiki in his next birth? Why?
      Your example is just sporadic!

      Ravan & Kangsh performed MUCH more deadly crimes than Valmiki. But they got mukti after their death! THINK ABOUT IT!!! Mukti, and that too directly. (Hope you know why).

      So, in that case, Verse 15 is a LIE by Krishna, right???
      So then no arguments further, right?

      You are making a major mistake of assuming that God gives the punishment of devolution of the soul. Its not like that. It is YOU who is punishing yourself with your misdeeds! But, IF He wants he can pardon your so-called Devolution. That is where the concept of your unconditional love fits in.
      Also the words Evolution & Devolution are Western words. Their TRUE "literal" meaning does not fits into the realm of Sanatan Dharma (Gita, etc.).

      And FYI, Soul & Atma are NOT same. Soul is biblical version, whose core meaning is different.
      And, Atmya never evolves or devolves!!! Its the Jibatmya which does!

      "The idea is not to judge and punish, but to put us in the "appropriate conditions" in which we may learn from our past mistakes and overcome our ego blockages" - CORRECT you are!
      So if you have Animal instinct you reincarnate in an animal "Yoni". Done!
      Whatever verse 15 states/explains is correct.

    7. The key terms in the verse 14.15 is "mūḍha-yoniṣu jāyate" where mudha means "ignorant", yonisu means "womb", and jayate means "take birth". So one who dies in a state of tamas is born in the womb of the ignorant. This is the complete translation of this verse by Eknath Easwaran:

      "Those dying in the state of sattva attain the pure worlds of the wise. Those dying in rajas are reborn among people driven by work. But those who die in tamas are conceived in the wombs of the ignorant."

      We cannot assume that the wombs of the ignorant means being born as an animal. No specific mention is made of other animal forms. Since the subject matter pertains to the human soul, we should infer that this refers to ignorant human beings.

      Nowhere in the Gita or the Upanishads is it mentioned that humans can devolve to an animal state. If it was explicitly mentioned, I would have gladly accepted it. But we cannot make assumptions on such a matter.

      Even intuitively, it does not make sense to me. The purpose of existence is to progress towards self-realization. If someone has progressed towards the human state, which is so much more advanced than any other animal state, and from where it is but a single leap to immortality, then it will go against the spirit of evolution to demote that soul to an animal state. It is true that many people exhibit highly egoistic and animalistic behaviour, but that is because they have progressed from the animal state (like everyone else), but have not yet gone through enough human births to purify their minds. Such people will be put through different circumstances till they can learn to exercise control over their senses and mind.

      A child who has progressed to the second standard and flunks his exams is never demoted to the first standard. Instead, extra attention is given to that child so that he may progress. The earth is also a school where the mind evolves over many births to realize the Self. Here, the law of karma acts in a manner that is conducive to our spiritual growth. It does not demote us to animal forms but puts us through different learning circumstances.

  60. Hello
    What a marvelous study! Since I knew only rumors and ordinary comments about the vedas and the purunas, I never thought thoroughly about the signification of the different yugas, and particularly the kali-yuga. And you bring me all this information as a gift. I intended to better know the duration of it, and the date of its end, to compare with what the native americans say, to write an article and a book about the earth energy changes. And I found in your article exactly what I was looking for. So I will quote you name.
    Now, only one thing is missing for me in your article. It is said in the Vishnu Purina that the beginning of the Kali-Yuga corresponds to Krishna's death. But you speak only of the conjunction of planets. So why?
    Do you think that the definition with Krishna's death is a late one and not the original one?
    Anyway, is his death's date really known? And if yes, does it correspond to your discover, 3676?
    Thank you

    1. Hello Alain,
      Thank you for your kind words. I wish you all the best for your new articles and book.
      It is true that the Vishnu Purana states that after Krishna left this world we entered into the Kali Yuga. However, we do not know the date of Krishna's death. Krishna is said to have departed from this world 35 years after the battle of Mahabharata, but we do not know when the Mahabharata war took place either. So, we are only left to conjecture.
      According to the traditional belief, Krishna had appeared during the transitional period between the Dwapara and the Kali, i.e. between 3976-3676 BC as per the timelines I have proposed. Technically, the "dawn" of the Kali Yuga begins 150 years before 3676 BC i.e. in 3826 BC. So, I would put the date of Krishna's death sometime around 3826 BC. There is no supporting evidence for this date from Indian sources. However, the Jewish Calendar begins in 3761 BC, which is just 65 years after this date. There have been suggestions by some researchers that the Jews may be the remnants of the Yadava dynasty of Krishna. The Yadavas were also called Yadus or Jadus, which could have been transformed to Jews. So the date of Krishna's death may have been preserved by them. All of this is conjecture, but worth discussing, nevertheless.

    2. Wouah, very thorough and interesting answer. Thanks a lot.

  61. Hey BDM, Excellent Researched Article :-)
    I have referred your article -->
    in numerous websites related to the Yuga cycle!

    Here's another Interesting one -
    Does the Biblical Shemitah Jubilee Signify the Beginning of the End of the KALI YUGA?

    1. Thanks for sharing the article. Its interesting to know that the final Shemitah Jubilee of the Hebrew Calendar has been calculated to end in 2023. From my perspective, the exact date is not so important, since nothing specific will happen on the yuga ending date. We will enter into a period of transition, and the changes will manifest over several decades. The Avatar, too, will appear in the transitional period, sometime after 2025, possibly in the 2030's in my opinion.

  62. Hi BDM,

    In one of your comment (dated June 2, 2013) you have stated that Kalki CAN be a comet. You might be correct or might not be. Because in the references you have given, all of them have a comparison phenomena (notice the word "like").
    Even few hundreds of years ago, how would a poet/author/script-writer describe a very fast or speedy Entity (even faster than a horse or even a storm)??? Especially if its a religious or heavenly one!
    There were no jet planes or rockets at that time!

    1. This link that you shared --- this is exactly the reason why I do not read Nostradamus's prophecies or any article which offers interpretions of it, since the quatrains can be interpreted in practically any manner to suit one's worldview and expectations of future events. It will be better if people simply write an article on what they feel will happen in future, instead of quoting Nostradamus. They might be more accurate that way! I could not get past the first few paragraphs of this article, and would really not want any discussion around it.
      Regarding Kalki as a comet --- I have mentioned that these descriptions may not be metaphorical and could be the manner in which Kalki will appear. There are many reason for this, apart from the purely visual similarities. Comets have always been regarded by ancient cultures as the harbingers of doom, destruction, and change of rulership, and Kalki is expected to bring about similar circumstances. The Revelations also talk of the Son of God appearing in the clouds with large rocks raining from the skies --- very apt descriptions of a comet encounter. A comet impact is believed to have ended the last ice age, and precipitated the end of the "Golden Age" and the beginning of the descending yuga cycle, so why not another comet to end the Kali Yuga? Last, but not the least, we simply cannot expect a person riding on a horse to confront the nuclear armed forces of the world and defeat them in battle comprehensively.
      I know there are many people out there who are waiting for a flesh-and-blood messiah to appear. Some people have even started believing that they are Kalki (I have received correspondences from 3 such persons, and god knows how many more delusional people are out there). Its a sign of the rapidity with which the earth frequencies are changing, which is sending people one of two ways - towards increasing spirituality or towards utter madness. However, I dont think that the messiah will take a mortal form. Lets just wait and see what happens, since one can never be sure of what will happen in future.

    2. COMET??? There's a possibility!

  63. Hello sir, My knowledge is very little in connecting science and our scriptures. I am still taking baby steps in this. I have been a frequent reader of your blog and also read a bit of news related to science. Few days back I did read abt the Doomsday asteroid which might hit[ even though they say very less chance] earth somewhere around 2036, it will come very near to earth around 2029 which is the date that you have predicted in your article.The link to the news article is

    Correct me if I am wrong.

    1. Hello Rekha, thanks for sharing your thoughts. The doomsday asteroid Apophis is an interesting object. It will come close to the earth in 2029 and 2036, but in all probability it will not hit us. I believe that since Apophis is a asteroid, and not a comet, it will not impact us, or be responsible for ending the yuga. However, we can see that the dates of close approach i.e. 2029 and 2036 are separated by exactly seven years. As per Biblical prophecies, there will be a "seven year period of tribulation" in the end times when humanity will plummet to the depths of depravity, there will be widespread disasters, famine, war, and suffering, accompanied by loss of lives, before the Second Coming of Christ takes place. Could it be that Apophis is acting like a "celestial clock" telling us in advance of this seven year period of tribulation? It may be possible. Since the messiah is supposed to appear after the seven year period of tribulation, there could be a comet impact sometime after 2036. I have a feeling that Apophis may be giving us the timing of important future events.

  64. hey Bibhu,

    Jeeze! I start to believe what you described in your article. The events are accelerating fast on the world stage and it does feel like the dusk of an entire age. My intuition tells me that this is the end of the world as we know it unfolding before our eyes. Whether this corresponds to the Hindu time cycles is still a matter of personal choice of beliefs but this narrative is very powerful (but also hopeless for our generation and the next 2 or 3). I don't believe in anything but if rebirth in this world does happen, let me come back during a wiser age!

    1. Thanks for sharing your thoughts. I have similar intuitive feelings regarding the current events on the world stage. We may be at the beginning of a great war that will eventually consume our civilization. I suspect that towards the end of this conflict there will be celestial interventions in the form of comet strikes to end this spiralling violence.

      The next 2-3 decades will be very difficult for our generation and the next, but I dont think that the generations after that will be greatly affected. Sure, there may be a great deal of continuing environmental and ecological changes, as our planet attunes to the vibrations of the "emerging yuga", however peace and harmony will be restored, and the warmth, wisdom, and positivity of the emerging yuga will outweigh all other negatives.

  65. Hi Bibhu,

    I have been through your blog. It gives a lot of knowledge and thanks a lot for your detailed study.

    I have come across similar link which also says the 2025 is End of Kaliyuga but at the same time it says Divine Kingdom will begin immediately.

    Do you have any idea of this ?. Please share your thoughts on this.
    Once again thanks for Knowledge feast.


    1. Hello Abhijit,

      Thanks for being appreciative of the blog articles.

      I read the the link you shared. I dont think that the Golden Age will begin in 2025. As I have mentioned in the article, it will simply lead to a 300 year period of transition when the current civilization will collapse and a new one will begin to emerge.

      Regarding the 27 year World War foretold by Nostradamus, I think it has already been set in motion, and the final 7 years of the war - the biblical seven year period of tribulation - could be from 2029 to 2036 coinciding with the two close passes of the asteroid Apophis. The return of the Kalki Avatar should happen after 2036.

      This is my thinking at the moment. I am not very interested in prophecies that deal with the specifics of the war, since I believe that such events cannot be foretold. We just need to wait and watch how it all unfolds.

  66. Hello,

    Great work there.I have doubts,hope you clear it

    There was demon named Tripurasura in tretayuga...see here his story at wiki -

    Here imp thing i quote -
    "While the celebrations were going on, the shaven-heads religious teachers arrived. "What are we supposed to do now?" they asked.

    Brahma and Vishnu told them to go the desert where there are no humans. The last of the four eras was kaliyuga and in kaliyuga, evil would reign supreme. When kaliyuga arrived, they were to come back and begin their teaching afresh. And once they reached at their peak god will take rebirth and will wipe them from earth and once again the world will be free from all kinds of demons."

    so which religion here vishnu talking about ?? which would emerge from desert,they won't believe in hell or heaven etc...

    1. I dont think the story is about any specific religion. It is about a materialistic philosophy, which stresses on greed and reckless consumption without any thought for the afterlife.

      As per the story, Vishnu tells the 5 shaven-head religious teachers, wearing faded cloths and carrying wooden water-pots (resembling brahmin/buddhist monks) to teach the following philosophy to the demons:

      "I will teach you a religion that is completely against the Vedas. You will then get the impression that there is no svarga (heaven) and no naraka (hell) and that both heaven and hell are on earth. You will not believe that rewards and punishments for deeds committed on earth are meted out after death. Go to Tripura and teach the demons this religion, which they are dislodged from the righteous path."

      As it stands now, all the major religions believe in the concept of heaven, hell, judgement and afterlife. However, an intensenly materialistic philosophy is currently sweeping across the world which glorifies unbridled consumption and the relentless acquisition of wealth. This is what is causing the numerous wars, exploitations, disharmony, environmental degradation and sufferings in many parts of the globe. Followers of all religions, without exception, have succumbed to this materialistic philosophy.

      This is the demonic philosophy of the Kali Yuga which will be vanquished by the coming Avatar.

  67. Interesting information. I have read about the Kali yuga prediction in an interesting blog and that was the first time i read about Kali Yuga predictions. Its quite unbelievable to know that the current state of the world was predicted some 5000 years ago.

    1. Yes, its very interesting. Since the yugas are part of a repeating cosmic cycle, the properties of each yuga were clearly defined and documented by the ancients.

  68. Hi bro

    Few days back a new research conducted and found that 9th avatar lord Buddha’s Birth 300 Years Earlier


    If this is true,then buddha birth comes in CHANGE PERIOD of 300 years.

    Previous accepted birth date - 563 it would be 863 BCE (that is in transitional period) :) :)

    Hatsoff to you bro

    1. Thanks for sharing the article. However, the article does not really push the date of Buddha's birth to 863 BC. Here's what it says:

      "Prior to this discovery, it had been thought that the shrine at Lumbini – an important pilgrimage site for half a billion Buddhists worldwide – marked the birthplace of the Buddha in the third century BC. But the timber structure revealed by archaeologists was radio-carbon-dated to the sixth century BC."

      So, it makes an incorrect assumption that Buddha's birth was in the 3rd century BC, and then pushes it back to the sixth century BC, which anyway, is the accepted birth date as per Buddhist legends. At most, this discovery can be taken as an archaeological validation of the accepted birth date.

      From my perpective, however, Buddha is the mortal incarnation of one of the seven sages who appear to promulgate the laws of civilization at the beginning of a yuga. Along with the Buddha many other sages appeared in different places during this time such as Confucius, Zoroaster, Thales etc.

      The Avatar appears during the transitional period, but the seven sages appear when the situation is conducive to spread the laws of civilization in the new yuga.

  69. Mishraji, in one of the earlier commments you said you were gonna write about Kalki Avatar's form (comet etc etc). If you did can you please paste the link here?

    1. I have not yet written the article. Once I do, it will be on my blog, and you will be able to easily find it under "Recent Posts".

    2. Hi sir,
      Please send links for future of universe, higher forms if existence, life after death and salvation and more about kalki.

    3. Hi Pallavi, I am not aware of any good articles on the topics that you mentioned. It would be best if you read from the primary texts - I will recommend the Vishnu Purana which is freely available online (
      I am also researching on these, and many other subjects, and as and when I compose an article I shall share it on my blog.

  70. Hi Readers,
    This link talks about birth of kalki. Refer to this as it will help answer your questions.

    1. Hi Pallavi, thanks for sharing the link. Its quite informative. I would just like to add that the Kalki Purana is a very late text, probably composed sometime around the 15th century. It is regarded as a Upapurana i.e. lesser purana. I dont find the descriptions in the Kalki Purana to be very convincing - it portrays Kalki as a normal warrior riding a horse who invades other countries, heaps insults on Buddhists, Jains, and other religious sects, goes into excessive details of the war etc. The descriptions in the other Puranas are more concise and believable.

  71. Hello Bibhu

    Your article is very interesting. Kudos to your research and scholarship.

    As you have said, Kali yuga will be followed by Dwapara yuga. Then, can you explain what will happen to all these modern technological developments like fast airplanes, nuclear bombs, high speed supercomputers, bullet trains, satellites and spaceships etc.
    Where will all this go? Will all these technology be lost?
    Or some other higher things would be revealed to human beings? If destruction will happen, then surely these technologies would be destroyed. Is it because the whole " development" happens by exploiting the nature/ natural resources?

    Thanks. Suvimal

    1. Thanks Suvimal. Glad to know you found the article interesting. Regarding your question, I think you have answered it yourself. Much of modern technology exploits natural resources and destroys the ecosphere. Not only that, advanced military technologies are used without compunction causing immense sufferings everywhere.
      I think the technology of the new yuga will be mental in nature. The vast human potential will be unlocked, and we will be able to lead happy, fulfilling lives, and not function as slaves of a consumerist society. Great power will be acquired though mental discipline, and will therefore be used responsibly, for the benefit of the greater whole. The modern-day technologies are useful for us now, but they will serve no purpose in the new scheme of things. That is how I look at it.

  72. Very interesting article and I completely agree with you and thanks for proving us with your hard work. Can you tell us more about the Arrival Of Kalki when you studied the scriptures everything. I also do not agree much with the Kalki Puran.

    1. Thanks. My article of Kalki avatar will take some time since I am working on other things right now. But someday I will surely get to it, especially seeing that so many people are interested in the subject.

    2. Thank you, looking forward reading it soon, and continue in your good work educating people on truth. God bless....

  73. Misraji, out of curiosity do you take voluntary interns to help you with your work? Someone who can hep with sifting mountains of data for you or something similar. Might help you save some time. Me and 2 of my friends could help you if you are interested - totally voluntary and no credits required.

    1. Thank you for offering your help. Please send me an email at and we can discuss further.

  74. Nostradamus in his codes predicts 92 Years of peace between the Second World War and the third world war. Hence we arrive at the Year 2037 which ushers in catastrophic changes. The comet ( Jan 2037) and asteroid ( June 2040) according to the Book of Revelations would destroy one third of the land and one third of the sea respectively submerging countries like Britain, Japan, South Africa, Singapore, parts of USA ( San Francisco) and ancient civilizations. After the 3 1/2 Years of peace war will breakout in 2041. India will be occupied by China. China and Russia will annex and occupy USA. Europe will be devastated by the Islamic invaders lead by the Mahdi of Greater Arabia who sports a blue turban launching nuclear weapons on it. The war would see 200 million soldiers kill 3 billion people. Read for Hindu prophecies which mentions Kalki (Sree Veerabhoga Vasantharaya born in 1965-66 ) will restore law and order and usher in 1000 Years of peace from 2064 onwards.

    1. Haha, yeah, and you forgot the UNIX end of time in jan 19 2038 :

      That one is certain :)

    2. Hello Ravi Shankar,
      Thanks for sharing your research and thoughts on the Kalki avatar. It seems to me, as well, that the 2030s will be a tumultous decade of changes, involving wars, cataclysms, and possibly comet impacts. However, I do not subscribe to very specific predictions of future events. I do not think they can be foretold with such precision.

  75. A well researched article that I have read in a long time. Congratulations and keep it up.

    1. Thank you. Appreciate your kind comments very much.

  76. Sir,

    You have written a very well researched paper. Many thanks for the scientific explanation. However, Shri Pushkar Bhatnagar in his book "Dating the Era of Lord Rama" published by Rupa and Co. calculated (using the Planetarium Gold software) the data of the birth of Lord Shri Ram to be January 10, 5114 BC. Mr. Bhatnagar entered the relevant details about the planetary positions vis-a-vis zodiac constellations narrated by Maharishi Valmiki.

    I have read some reports which have contested this claim and have stated that since Ram Navmi falls in March - April, the date of birth of Lord Ram is March 28, 5114 BC. Some studies have completely debunked the claims and have reiterated the age of a yug to be lakhs of years, which I have never been convinced with. However, according to the argument presented above by you, this date, as per the Saptarishi Calendar, falls in the Descending Dvapar Yug ; whereas, Shri Ram was born in the Treta Yug.

    Can you please clarify this.


    1. Hello Priyanka,

      I am not a fan of dating of past events using astronomy/astrology software. There are many reasons for this, but the most important one is that astronomy software cannot project back into the remote past with accuracy. Did you know that NASA revises its star charts every 20 years? We cannot even project 20 years into the future, how can we project thousands of years into the past?
      There are many factors which causes uncertainities in the position of the planets with respect to the background stars. The first is precession. It has been observed over the past 100 years that the value of precession is changing very gradually. We dont know at what rate precession changes. If we project into the past using the present-day value of precession, it is bound to be inaccurate. Second is the axial tilt, which shows unexpected variations. Volcanic eruptions or asteroid impacts can alter the axial tilt and thereby change our view of the skies. Many such events have taken place in the past few thousand years. Finally, the positions of the planets is also influenced in an uncertain manner by nearby asteroids or comets, whose masses and trajectories are not known.
      Because of all these uncertainities, any recreation of past skies, particularly those thousands of years ago, are bound to be inaccurate. The astronomy softwares explicitly specify that the past co-ordinates are "approximate" and do not vouch for their accuracy. But not many people using them seem to be interested in the fine print.
      Then there is the question of accuracy of the astrological data. There are multiple versions of the texts, and we know that all the ancient texts have been modified to some extent. How do we know which values are the "original" ones and which were added later? Even if we could somehow arrive at a set of agreed-upon data points, different astrologers intepret the data differently. So, we end up with dating of the Mahabharata war from 5000 BC - 1000 BC using the same texts. It is actually possible to cherry-pick data points and arrive at any date of one's choosing.
      In case of Rama's birth, for instance, according to the calculations done by Dr.Vartak Rama was born in 7323 BC. This date is actually close to the 6976 BC date which I have identified as the end of the Treta yuga. I could use this as a validation of my approach, but I choose not to do so because of all the reasons I have mentioned earlier i.e. the astronomy software is inaccurate, the astrological data is suspect, and interpretation of the data is subject to an individual's personal opinion. I have consciously decided to base my research on historical, calendric, and archaeological data which is verifiable.


  77. Sir, you did a wonderful job recompiling fragments of unique and rare Yuga theory. Meanwhile, those unaware of your montage still think of 432,000 as transitional time.

    Recent circumstances in world politics indicates that World will change shortly.

    The next 'World War' may bring huge impact on Human Morale. And it's not far away..

    1. Thanks John for sharing your thoughts. I agree that our world may be entering into a period of revolutions and warfare...such events have happened at the end of the previous yugas, and the current global geopolitical situation suggests that that the next major war and upheavals may not be far away. Even now many people in Libya, Syria and the Middle East in general are going through their end-time scenarios...
      But there is a bright light at the end of the tunnel, and I think that it is the promise of a better, more humane and compassinate world that will help people cope with the impending changes.