Most ancient cultures believed that human civilization and consciousness moves in grand cycles, slowly declining from Golden Ages of illumination and harmony to Dark Ages of ignorance and strife. In India, this cycle was called the Yuga Cycle. Other cultures knew it by different names. The Greeks referred to it as the Cycle of the Ages of Man, the Supreme Year, or the Great Year. The Persians called it the World Cycle. The Hopi refer to the four previous ages as the Four Worlds, while the Aztecs knew them as the Four Suns. The Egyptians were also aware of the Yuga Cycle, as did many other cultures; for this understanding was encoded into the ancient tales and sacred wisdom that had been orally transmitted for generations.

In the years leading up to 2012, when there was considerable global consternation over the approaching end of the Mayan Calendar, I became interested in the Yuga Cycle doctrine of ancient India, and decided to take a closer look at the available data and philosophical speculations in order to determine the possible ending of the Kali Yuga or Iron Age – which is the current age of greed and lies, discord and violence, that we are living in. When I dove into the details, however, I realized that a number of errors and omissions had crept into the ancient texts in course of our long passage through the darkness of the Kali Yuga, as a result of which, the original formulation of the Yuga Cycle was completely lost.

The guiding principle that I decided to adopt in order work out the original Yuga Cycle formulation was that, there could not have been different Yuga Cycles for different cultures. There was only one Yuga Cycle for the entire world that governed the periodic rise and fall of consciousness, and in order to stitch together the original framework, it was of utmost importance to delineate the common threads that run through the different traditions. I was also keenly aware that I needed to keep tabs on the latest archaeological, anthropological and historical findings, for any Yuga Cycle framework needs to be backed up by as much scientific data as possible. 

In July 2012, I had published an article titled, "The End of the Kali Yuga in 2025: Unraveling the Mysteries of the Yuga Cycle"[1] in which I had put forward, what, in my opinion, was the original Yuga Cycle timeline, which indicated that the Kali Yuga was due to end in 2025. I had discussed the rationale for the proposed timeline in the article, and I have treated the matter with a lot more rigor in the book. Without going into the nitty-gritties, let me present some of the essential building blocks of this framework. 

1. The complete Yuga Cycle is of 24,000-years duration, and is comprised of an ascending cycle of 12000 years, when human consciousness gradually increases, followed by a descending cycle of 12000 years when consciousness gradually diminishes. 

2. Each 12,000-year half-cycle is comprised of four Yugas of equal duration of 3000-years each. The actual duration of a Yuga is 2700 years, and it is followed by a transitional period of 300 years before the qualities of the subsequent Yuga is manifested. The Yuga Cycle was tracked using the “Saptarshi Calendar” or “Calendar of the Seven Sages” of ancient India, which has a 2700-year cycle called a “Saptarshi Yuga”.

3. It can be determined from the extant historical records that, one of the starting points of the Saptarshi Calendar was in 6676 BCE, which denotes the beginning of the Dwapara Yuga (Bronze Age) in the descending cycle. Using this date as an anchor point, the entire Yuga Cycle timeline gets unraveled, as shown below. For those who are not familiar with the Sanskrit terms: Satya Yuga is Golden Age, Treta Yuga is Silver Age, Dwapara Yuga is Bronze Age and Kali Yuga is Iron Age.

Yuga Cycle 24,000 years
Figure 1: The 24000-year Yuga Cycle based on the Saptarshi Calendar. Credit: Bibhu Dev Misra
The Yuga Cycle framework reveals that the descending cycle of consciousness began in 9676 BCE, around the same time that the last Ice Age came to a rather abrupt end. The ancient authors indicate that this was the time when the Golden-age kingdom of Atlantis sank into the ocean, and the Supreme Creator of the Zoroastrians, Ahura Mazda, had re-created the world and initiated the current World Cycle of 12,000 years. 

Over the past 5700-odd years, we have been living in two back-to-back Kali Yugas - the descending Kali Yuga followed by the ascending Kali Yuga. These two Yugas of ignorance and discord span most of recorded history, starting with the Bronze Age civilizations in Egypt, Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley.

We are now approaching the end of ascending Kali Yuga in the year 2025. The term “ascending” tends to convey the wrong impression that we may be in a “higher Yuga” and our civilization is on an upward trajectory of virtue and progress. Far from it. In the ascending Kali Yuga only the material circumstances of life begin to improve, along with an increase in our lifespan and physical stature, but the degradation of human consciousness and the proliferation of vices continues unabated throughout the entire duration of the Kali Yuga. This is why, at the fag end of the Kali Yuga, we have an out-of-balance society which is characterized by a massive “matter-spirit gap” that is highly destabilizing and is responsible for much of the misery and injustices we see around us. The need of the hour is to reduce our attachment to material acquisitions and focus our energies on the other dimensions of our life, particularly on cultivating mental and spiritual awareness, in order to restore the much-needed balance, harmony and sanity in our lives.

The Yuga Cycle timeline indicates that we are living in the times of momentous changes, which will begin to unfold as we get closer to 2025 and enter the period of transition. Not only are we about to emerge from the dense, materialistic vibrations of the Kali Yuga, but we are also at the cusp of the entire descending cycle of consciousness that began in 9676 BCE. The events of the past few years have revealed that human consciousness has now plunged into utter depravity, and, all means, however despicable, are now considered legitimate for the acquisition of money and influence and for the exploitation and enslavement of the masses. The specter of hatred, war and unrestrained violence is spreading across the world, while the frequency and ferocity of extreme weather phenomenon such as floods, landslides and wildfires have dramatically increased over the past few years. All of these are precursors of the planetary-scale changes that lie ahead of us.

Every time we go though the periods of transition between the Yugas, there is a cataclysmic obliteration of the existing civilizations (“pralaya”, in Sanskrit), which is followed by the re-emergence of a new wave of civilizations with different artistic, technological and cultural traits. The purging events purify our consciousness and restore all of nature to its original pristine state to support another round of civilization. In my article, I had presented a gamut of archaeological and geological evidence which show that, every 3000-odd years, a new wave of civilizations emerge all over the world, built on the ashes of the previous civilizations, which are wiped away by a slew of cataclysmic events occurring over a period of roughly 300 years.

It happened in c.9600 BCE, soon after the cataclysmic end of the last Ice Age, with the establishment of the settlements at Gobekli Tepe. We can be quite certain that similar settlements were springing up elsewhere at the same time, the evidence of which we are yet to uncover. In c.6500 BCE, new settlements emerged in Anatolia and Southeastern Europe with distinct cultural traits, but we don’t have much of an idea about what was going on in other parts of the world at that time. This was preceded by a bout of global flooding, triggered primarily by the collapse of the Laurentide Ice Sheet in North America. Then in c.3600 BCE, the “Bronze Age” civilizations arose almost simultaneously in Egypt, Mesopotamia, India, Malta and other places, while the pre-Bronze Age cultures were wiped out without a trace. Finally at around c.700 BCE, the Iron Age cultures emerged almost simultaneously in the Eastern Mediterranean region, Persia, India, Mesoamerica etc., built on the ashes of the Bronze Age civilizations which had collapsed in a heap over the previous 400-odd years.

The trend is distinct and unmistakable. The Yuga Cycle is not an article of faith but an important scientific doctrine which captures the cyclical nature of human civilization. Not only does it give us a clear perspective of what had happened in the past, it also tells us where our own decadent civilization of the Kali Yuga is headed. In my book YUGA SHIFT, I have taken a closer look at the events of the last four Yuga-transitional periods, which reveals that comet and meteor impacts inevitably play a crucial role in the periodic destruction and renewal of civilizations.

However, one of the questions that had puzzled me for a long time ever since I wrote the article on the Yuga Cycle was the reason for the discrepancy between the complete Yuga Cycle of 24,000 years and the earth’s precession cycle of 25,800 years.

The phenomenon of the “precession of the equinoxes” was known to, and tracked by, many ancient cultures. Briefly, what this means is that, the position of the vernal equinox sun relative to the fixed stars of the zodiac changes very slowly at the rate of 1° every 71.6 years, completing an entire cycle of 360° around the zodiac in about 25,800 years. 

In the present epoch, the vernal equinox sun is very close to the beginning of the Pisces constellation, near its boundary with the Aquarius constellation. This can be determined by drawing a line from the earth to the sun and extending it to the ring of fixed stars beyond.

Precession of the Equinoxes
Figure 2: The zodiac constellations encircle the solar system like a giant ring. On the vernal equinox date, the Sun appears in front of the Pisces constellation. Credit: Bibhu Dev Misra.

Very soon – perhaps, in a few decades - the vernal equinox sun will appear in front of the Aquarius constellation. In this manner, the vernal equinox point slowly shifts its position relative to the fixed stars of the zodiac at the rate of 1° every 71.67 years, spending roughly 2150 years in each constellation called an Astrological Age. So, we are now in the Age of Pisces, and about to transition to the Age of Aquarius very soon. Since the boundaries between the constellations are not precisely defined by a specific star or asterism, the exact date of transition from one Astrological Age to another is kind of hazy and subject to individual interpretation.

The slow change in the position of the equinoctial sun against the backdrop of the fixed stars of the zodiac is called the “precession of the equinoxes” or simply precession, while the cycle duration of 25,800 years is called a precession cycle. Human civilizations lives through twelve Astrological Ages in course of the 25,800-year precession cycle.  

Now, here’s the mystery that had baffled me for a long time: What is the reason for the mismatch in values between the 24,000-year Yuga Cycle and the 25,800-year precession cycle? The duration of the Great Year specified by Cicero i.e. 25,920 years, is so close to the scientifically measured value of the precession cycle that it leaves little doubt that the two cycles must be identical.

Moreover, the Yuga Cycle doctrine of the Jains - which I had discussed in the original article on the Yuga Cycle - strongly hints at this possibility. If we recollect, as per the Jains, the Yuga Cycle consists of an ascending half called Utsarpini, which is comprised of six smaller periods, and a descending half called Avasarpini, which is comprised of six periods as well. Thus, the complete Yuga Cycle consists of twelve smaller periods. What could these twelve periods be, if not the twelve Astrological Ages? If the complete Yuga Cycle is comprised of twelve Astrological Ages, then it gives us a very good reason to suspect that the Yuga Cycle and the precession cycle are one and the same.

But, how do we account for the apparent mismatch in values?

I found an answer to this conundrum when I came across a key piece of information about the Yugas mentioned in the ancient Greek texts, that I had overlooked earlier. As per the doctrine of the Ages of Man in Greek tradition, the earth is subjected to two extended periods of purging in course of the Great Year. One is called Kataklysmos (meaning, “Deluge”) or the “great winter” of the Great Year, when the earth is inundated by water. The other is called Ekpyrosis (meaning “Conflagration”) or the “great summer” of the Great Year, when the world is destroyed by fire. In the 3rd century CE, the Roman philosopher Censorinus wrote:

“There is a period called “the supreme year” by Aristotle, at the end of which the sun, moon and all the planets return to their original position. This “supreme year” has a great winter, called by the Greeks Kataklysmos which means deluge, and a great summer, called by the Greeks Ekpyrosis or combustion of the world. The world, actually, seems to be inundated and burned alternately in each of the epochs.”[2]

Now, there was a fair degree of unanimity in the ancient times that the Flood had occurred at the end of the Golden Age or Satya Yuga. This means that the period of transition that the Greeks called Kataklysmos must have followed the Golden Age or Satya Yuga. 

It is extremely intriguing that the period of Kataklysmos was also called the “great winter” of the Great Year, for it just so happens that the earth went through a long period of freezing temperatures called the Younger Dryas period, which extended for nearly 1200 years from 10,900 BCE - 9700 BCE. During this time, global temperatures had plummeted by nearly 10 - 15°C to near-glacial conditions and the glaciers had advanced to their Ice Age positions.

Could the entire 1200-year Younger Dryas period, therefore, be the extended period of transition that the Greeks called Kataklysmos or “great winter”?

In 2007, a team of international scientists led by Richard B. Firestone found compelling evidence that that the earth was bombarded by multiple fragments of a giant disintegrating comet nearly 12,900 years ago, (c.10,900 BCE) which destabilized the Laurentide Ice Sheet and triggered the Younger Dryas cooling. The shock waves and biomass burning generated by this catastrophic impact even led to the extinction of 35 genera of North American Pleistocene megafauna, and ended the prehistoric Clovis culture.[3]

A dense, carbon-rich, black layer, called the “black mat” was deposited over the bones of the extinct megafauna and the Clovis artifacts at more than 50 sites across North America. The black mat contains evidence of biomass burning and impact proxies such as elevated levels of Iridium, and its thickness spans the entire Younger Dryas cooling period from c.10, 900 – 9,700 BCE. This suggests that impact events must have continued to occur throughout the entire Younger Dryas period! Surprisingly, hardly anyone seems to be talking about this possibility. Is this scenario too mind-bogglingly catastrophic even for our consideration?

Not many would be aware, though, that a little-known Sanskrit text called Adbhuta-sagara provides astonishing details of a sequence of 26 comets that struck the earth, one after the other, throughout the Younger Dryas period. The second comet in the sequence is said to have caused the Deluge, the tell-tale signs of which are still preserved in the black mat! In my book, YUGA SHIFT, I have discussed in detail about the Younger Dryas comet swarm and the evidence of the Flood.

Obviously, the kind of environmental calamities that had swept over the world during the Younger Dryas period could not have happened while the Golden Age was still in progress. Conditions of life in the Golden Age were supposed to have been utopian; temperatures were pleasant, nature was teeming with life, and natural disasters or diseases were unknown. The Younger Dryas period could have started only after the Golden Age had ended.

The Yuga Cycle timeline that I had proposed earlier had a 300-year period of transition after the Golden Age. But that may not be correct, and it is quite likely that the Golden Age had ended by 10,876 BCE, and was followed by a 1200-year period of Kataklysmos or “great winter”, that extended from 10,876 BCE - 9676 BCE, coinciding with the Younger Dryas period.

This means, the end of Kali Yuga in 2025 will be also followed by an extended period of cataclysmic activity called Ekpyrosis (meaning “Conflagration”) or the “great summer” of the Great Year, for nearly 1200 years, since the upcoming transition is diametrically opposite to the Younger Dryas period. In other words, post 2025, it will be the Younger Dryas period all over again; except that, this time the cleansing will be by fire and not by ice and water.

There are direct references to the upcoming period of Ekpyrosis in many end-time prophecies. For instance, the Kalachakra Tantra prophecy tells us that, after the divine Savior Rudra Chakrin will destroy the evil forces in an apocalyptic battle, he will bestow “the “perfect age” for at least “a thousand years”, during which time, “the whole world will turn into Shambhala with no sickness or poverty, and no need to work to earn a living.”[4] This dovetails with The Revelation, according to which, after his Second Coming, Christ will reign for a “thousand years” along with the resurrected holy men.[5] Both these prophecies appear to be telling us about the 1200-year period of transition called Ekpyrosis which will follow the Kali Yuga, before the ascending Yuga Cycle begins.

Although the 1200-year period of Ekpyrosis will be a time of significant earth changes and periodic comet impacts, which will purify and renew our world, it will also be an amazing time to live for the survivors of the impending cataclysms, for a new, divine energy will course through our planet, activating our dormant chakra centers and subtle mental abilities, and, as a result, the people of that period are likely to experience powerful feelings of bliss and connectedness that are inconceivable today. Their awareness will be expanded, revealing to them new possibilities and ways of living that promote peace, justice and harmony. They will establish the foundations of a new civilization which will eventually grow into the enlightened civilizations of the ascending Yuga Cycle, culminating in the next Golden Age.

In the Yuga Cycle framework that I had proposed earlier, all the transitional periods were of equal length of 300 years. However, since the extended periods of transition called Kataklysmos and Ekpyrosis extend for a whopping 1200 years each, the duration of the complete Yuga Cycle is extended by (900 + 900) i.e. 1800 years. Thus, the duration of the complete Yuga Cycle becomes equal to (24,000 + 1800) = 25,800 years, which is exactly the same as the scientifically measured value of the precession cycle!

Figure 3: The 25,800-year Yuga Cycle, including the 1200-year periods of Kataklysmos and Ekpyrosis. Credit: Bibhu Dev Misra.

It is quite amazing to realize that, once the periods of Kataklysmos and Ekpyrosis are included in the Yuga Cycle framework, the complete Yuga Cycle and the earth’s precession cycle become perfectly aligned! For a long time, the discrepancy in values between the two had baffled me, and it was a great relief to be able to finally put my finger on the solution.

Like a giant jigsaw puzzle, critical bit and pieces of the Yuga Cycle doctrine had been scattered all over the world, lying concealed with the sacred texts and oral traditions of disparate cultures, for many generations. It is only when we diligently pick up all the pieces and scrutinize them, keeping one eye always on the scientific data so that we don’t veer off track, does it become possible to put together this puzzle for the ages.

Evidently, the Yuga Cycle and the earth’s precession cycle are one and the same, and extend for 25,800 years. On 21st of March 2025, the Kali Yuga and the entire descending cycle of consciousness will come to an end; and we will enter a long period of transition of nearly 1200 years, during which time our planet will be dramatically altered beyond recognition, and the outlines of a new civilization will be manifested, which will be permeated by compassion, peace, harmony and truth. The environment will be restored to its original pristine state, and the interdimensional gateways may open up revealing to us a reality that we have long forgotten.

However, my research also indicates that the collapse of the current Kali Yuga civilization is likely to be completed in a small window of time between 2025 to 2040, due to a combination of global wars and comet impacts. These are the end-times that the ancient prophecies tells us of, when our reality will be drastically altered, and we will be forced to introspect about our patterns of thought and our way of life. The survivors of these transformative events will inherit a renewed earth and become the seeds of the new dispensation that is on the way.

In my book, YUGA SHIFT, I have discussed what causes the cyclical fluctuation of consciousness in course of the Yuga Cycle, the cosmic triggers for the cataclysms during the periods of Yuga transition, and the real meaning of the various prophecies that describe the return of a Savior or Avatar at the end of this age. If you are one of those who can already sense that a momentous shift is underway, and are trying to figure out how exactly this transformation may play out in the coming years, then you are likely to find the answers to some of your questions in the book.   


[1] Bibhu Dev Misra, "The end of the Kali Yuga in 2025: Unraveling the mysteries of the Yuga Cycle", Ancient Inquiries, July 15, 2012,
[2] Censorinus, De Die Natali, xviii.
[3] R. B. Firestone et al, “Evidence for an extraterrestrial impact 12,900 years ago that contributed to the megafaunal extinctions and the Younger Dryas cooling”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), Oct 2007, Vol.104, No.41, pp. 16016-16021,
[4] Victoria Dmitrieva, The Legend of Shambhala in Eastern and Western Interpretations, Mc Gill University, November 1997, p. 11.
[5] Revelation 20.4-6


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Bibhu Dev Misra

Independent researcher and writer on ancient mysteries, cultural connections, cosmic wisdom, religion and science. Graduate of IIT and IIM with two decades of work experience in different fields

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  1. Surprisingly as per Bhavishya Maalika we are going to enter 1008 year period as Kaliyug end starts in 2025. So this aligns with what is written.

    Although it disagrees on next yuga. As per the prophecies in it it will be called Adya Satyug (1008 year period) after which complete Satyug will manifest.

    1. One more thing - As per Bhavishya Maalika and even astrological(jyotish) combinations, most destruction and change will completed by 2032/33. After that a good amount of time will be spent on recovering earth from all the destruction it will have gone through.

    2. Hello, thanks for sharing information from the Bhavishya Malika. These are very interesting connections. My research indicates that the passage of the earth through the Taurid Resonant Swarm in the years 2032 and 2036 could bring about the catastrophic end of our civilization, and the collapse is likely to be completed by 2040. So, there is an alignment in that respect as well.
      It is not practically possible for Satya Yuga to manifest immediately after the Kali Yuga, since our physical size, cranial volume and lifespan have decreased substantially over the past 12,000 years of the descending Yuga Cycle and it will take a proportionately long time for them to increase to the same levels as our Satya Yuga ancestors. We need to go through 6000 years of evolution through two more Yugas in the ascending cycle in order for the next Satya Yuga to manifest. However, the entire ascending cycle of 12,000 years can be considered as a "Golden Age", since peace, harmony, truth and virtue will increase everyday throughout this period, turning our planet into a veritable utopia.