Note: This article has been published on the Graham Hancock website.


A number of ancient historical sources speak of a heroic person of extraordinary abilities, Hercules, who had traveled across the world in the ancient times, destroying evil monsters and laying the foundations of civilization. He built massive fortified cities in distant lands, started royal dynasties, and established the institutions of astronomy and priesthood. As a result of his many incredible acts of strength, courage, piety, and benevolence he was deified after death and raised to the status of the gods. 

The statements of the Greek historians indicate that Hercules was a native of India, and was none other than Balarama, the elder brother of Krishna. This assertion is supported by many symbolic connections between these two heroes, as well as a major overlap between the labours of Hercules and the extraordinary childhood feats of the brother deities Krishna-Balaram. I had written about this in a previous article titled, "Hercules and Balarama: The Symbolic and Historical Connections". In a subsequent article titled: "The Legendary Exploits of Hercules-Balarama in Rome, Egypt, and Mesopotamia", I had explored his remarkable feats in distant lands, and shown how all of them conform to his identity as Balarama, the elder brother of Krishna.

Some of his most significant achievements were in Egypt, which was been largely ignored by modern historians. The ancient Greek and Roman sources relate that, when Hercules-Balarama arrived in Egypt, he had stopped a flood on the Nile which was threatening to go out of control. He, then, deposed of a tyrant king called Busiris, and established his own son Ramesses (also known as Aegyptus) on the throne of Egypt. It was from the name of his son Aegyptus that Egypt derived its name. Hercules's arrival in Egypt initiated a new phase in Egyptian history, which corresponds to the Naqada I Period (c. 4000 BC-3500 BC) of Predynastic Egypt.

In this article, I will show, through an analysis of the regalia of the pharaoh, that all through the Dynastic Period, the Egyptian pharaoh was trying to imitate Hercules-Balarama – that great hero who had established the foundations of the institution of monarchy in ancient Egypt in the Predynastic times, sometime around c.4000 BC.

The Was Scepter   

The Greek historian Diodorus Siculus had made an interesting statement regarding the regalia of the Egyptian pharaoh. He said that the Egyptian pharaoh and the priests carried a scepter shaped like a plough
“For all who have to do with the cult of the gods, they maintain, are [ritually] pure: the priests are shaved in the same way, they have the same robes and the type of scepter shaped like a plough, which also the kings have, who use tall pointed felt hats ending in a knob, with the snakes that they call the asp (aspis) coiled round them.”[i]
The plough-shaped scepter mentioned by Diodorus Siculus can be recognized as the “was scepter” (or “uas scepter”), which was carried by the Egyptian pharaohs, priests, and some of their gods (Horus, Set, Anubis etc.). The was scepter exactly resembles some of the Iron Age ploughs that have been found at the site of Oakbank, Scotland, in recent years, as well as the plough that is generally depicted in the hands of Balarama. The plough was the favorite instrument of Balarama, with which he changed the courses of rivers and vanquished his enemies.
The Was Scepter of the Egyptian Pharaoh was a Plough
Fig1: The Was Scepter of the Egyptian Pharaoh was a Plough
Egyptologists have no idea from where the was scepter originated. They believe that the was scepter was a symbol of “power” and “dominion”.  However, that may have been a secondary attribute of the scepter and not its primary one. Since the was scepter was a plough, it should, first and foremost, symbolize “fertility”. However, since the plough was also used by Balarama as an instrument of war, it could also denote "power" and "dominion".

Interestingly, a was scepter excavated at Abydos, Egypt, dates to the Predynastic period, which agrees with the hypothesis that Hercules-Balarama had arrived in Egypt in the Predynastic times, and the insignia of royalty was already well formulated before the beginnings of Dynastic Egypt in c.3100 BC. 

The Ames Scepter

Another important artifact held by the pharaoh was the mace or ames scepter. It was a symbol of “royal might". It invested the king with an air of invincibility, enabling him to crush all his enemies. The Narmer Palette (from c. 3100 BC) shows king Narmer, the first king of Dynastic Egypt, holding a mace in his upraised hand and smiting his enemy. Many subsequent pharaohs of Dynastic Egypt were depicted in a similar fashion. In a Karnak relief, Seti I was depicted on foot, wielding a mace, crushing his enemies, accompanied by an inscription that read: “Your mace is over the head of every foreign land and their great ones fall victim to your sword”.

If we compare the relief of King Narmer in the Narmer palette, with the stele of Baal or the bronze figure of Baal from Ugarit, we can see a remarkable degree of similarity. Both King Narmer and Baal are depicted with a conical headdress and a beard, holding a mace in the upraised arm, and wearing a kilt. While King Narmer is smiting a prisoner, Baal is holding a tree-stem, which was one of his sacred symbols.

I had written in a previous article that the god Baal of the Hebrews and Cannanites was Hercules-Balaram. The ancient historians tell us that King Belus, which was another name of Hercules-Balarama, had left Egypt and traveled to Babylon, where he had set up an Order of priesthood on the likes of Egypt, founded the magnificent city of Babylon, and established a royal dynasty which ruled for thousands of years after him. After his death, he was deified by the Hebrews and Canaanites as the god Baal (or Bel), the tutelary deity of Babylon. Like Hercules and Balarama, Baal was regarded as a protector and a conqueror, the giver of victory, the god of rains and fertility, and his sacred symbols included the club, the pillar and the palm tree. The club was the most important symbol of Baal, with which he had defeated Yam (Hindu Yama), the sea-god.

Thus, two of the most prominent symbols of Hercules-Balarama – the plough and the mace – were both royal scepters held by the Egyptian pharaoh.
King Narmer, the first king of Dynastic Egypt, depicted in the form of Baal, wielding a mace in his upraised hand
Fig 2: King Narmer, the first king of Dynastic Egypt, depicted in the form of Baal, wielding a mace in his upraised hand.
The Hedjet and Atef Crowns

It can be seen that the headdress of Baal (in the bronze figurine from Ugarit) is identical to the crown of King Narmer, who is wearing the “White Crown of Upper Egypt” (the Hedjet crown), which was described by Diodorus Siculus as a “tall pointed felt hat ending in a knob”. 

Equally striking is the headdress worn by the Phoenician deity Melqart, which looks exactly like the Atef crown worn by many Egyptian pharaohs. The Atef crown consists of the “White Crown of Upper Egypt” flanked by two ostrich feathers. 
The Hedjet Crown and the Atef Crown of the Egyptian Pharaoh can be seen on Baal and Melqart respectively.
Fig 3: The Hedjet Crown and the Atef Crown of the Egyptian Pharaoh can be seen on Baal and Melqart respectively.
As I have mentioned previously, the Phoenician deity Melqart
was regarded as a powerful king, the protector of the Phoenician colonies, and the god of harvest who brought abundance and prosperity. Melqart was known by various other epithets: Belus, Baal Melqart, Baal of Tyre, and the Tyrian Heracles which makes it clear that he was the same person as Hercules-Balarama.

While the earliest example of the Atef crown dates to the 5th Dynasty, the “White Crown of Upper Egypt” has been found depicted on the Qustul incense burner from c. 3800 BC, which indicates that this important royal symbol was in usage from the early Predynastic period, when Hercules-Balarama arrived in Egypt.

The Uraeus

An important component of the pharaonic headdress was the Uraeus, which was an upright, rearing cobra worn as a head ornament. The Uraeus was a symbol of royalty and divine authority throughout Dynastic Egypt. The pharaoh was recognized by wearing the Uraeus, which granted legitimacy to the ruler. It is believed that the Uraeus was a symbol of the goddess Wadjet, who was the goddess of the Nile delta, and the protector of Lower Egypt. The Uraeus protected the pharaoh by spitting fire on his enemies from the fiery eye of the goddess. 

Although the single uraeus is the most common form, there are instances of double serpents (double uraeus), three upright serpent heads (triple uraeus), with an even further increase in the number of serpents in the crown from the reign of Amenhotep III onwards.

Most interestingly, the rearing serpent on the crown can also be found in the iconography of Balarama. Balarama was believed to be an incarnation of the cosmic serpent Ananta-Sesha, and was nearly always depicted with a serpent canopy over his head (usually a three, five or seven hooded serpent). In some depictions, Balarama is shown with a single rearing serpent on his head, which closely resembles the single uraeus crown of the Egyptian Pharaoh. 
The Uraeus Crown of the Pharoah corresponds to the serpent headdress and serpent canopy of Balarama
Fig 4: The Uraeus Crown of the Pharoah corresponds to the serpent headdress and serpent canopy of Balarama.
The Crook and the Flail

Another pharaonic symbol of great significance is the crook and the flail, which were prominent insignias of kingship from the earliest dynasties. The crook (heqa) was a cane with a hooked handle, resembling the shepherd’s staff. It symbolized the pharaoh’s “rulership” over Egypt. It was even employed as the hieroglyph for the word “rule” or “ruler”.

The flail (nekhakha) consisted of a short handle, with three beaded strings attached to it. It resembles the “fly-whisks” which are still carried by some shepherds in the Mediterranean region. It stood for the “fertility” of the land.[ii] Although they are two different royal scepters and may sometimes be shown separately, in most cases they were depicted together, held across the chest by the pharaoh. Together, they probably represented the ruler as a shepherd whose beneficence is tempered with might.[iii] 

One might wonder how these symbols of a shepherd – the shepherd’s staff and the fly whisk – became emblems of royalty. It may not be a coincidence that Balarama was a cowherd in his youth, and Hercules is also said to have spent a considerable time of his youth tending the cattle and flocks. It was during his tenure as a shepherd that Hercules gained a reputation for being able to slay wild predators with his bare hands. It would be quite natural, therefore, for Hercules-Balarama to carry a shepherd’s staff. In Greco-Roman art there are a few instances where Hercules’s club has been replaced by a shepherd’s crook.
The Crook and the Flail held by the Egyptian Pharaoh was a symbol of Hecules-Balarama, the archetypal shepherd-king of the ancient times
Fig 5: The Crook and the Flail held by the Egyptian Pharaoh was a symbol of Hecules-Balarama, the archetypal shepherd-king of the ancient times.
Even the kings of Babylon, who claimed descent from King Belus i.e. Hercules-Balarama, used to hold a shepherd’s crook, as did the Chaldean priests and soothsayers, whose forefathers belonged to the Order of priesthood established in Babylon by King Belus.
Egyptologists believe that the flail, which resembles the “fly-whisk” stood for fertility. But that may not have been the case, for the fly-whisk actually stands for "protection" and "service". Besides, as we have already discussed, it is the "was scepter" which must have symbolized fertility. 

Incidentally, in the Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara, which flourished in northwestern Pakistan and Afghanistan in the 1st century AD, we find that the Greek artists had depicted Vajrapani, the fearsome protector of the Buddha, in the form of Hercules. Here, we find Vajrapani appearing as a bearded, muscular person, holding a short club. In some of these sculptures, Vajrapani-Hercules is shown holding the fly-whisk in his hand, offering protection to the Buddha from flies and insects.

Therefore, both the crook and the flail were symbols associated with Hercules-Balarama, the pre-eminent shepherd-king of the ancient times. Another interesting piece of evidence comes from some Phoenician coins. On one side of the coins, Melqart is depicted riding a hippocamp, and holding a bow in his hand; on the other side we find an owl, holding the crook and the flail.[iv] The owl being a bird associated with Melqart, these coins signify that the crook and the flail were symbols of Melqart as well, who was also known as the Tyrian Heracles, Baal-Melqart, and Belus.

A Phoenician coin depicting Melqart riding a hippocamp on one side, and an Egyptian style owl standing with the crook and flail on the other side.
Fig 6: A Phoenician coin depicting Melqart riding a hippocamp, bow in left hand, holding reins in the other, on one side, and an Egyptian style owl standing with the crook and flail on the other side. Phoenicia, Tyre, c. 400-360 BC. Source:
The False Pharaonic Beard

Next we come to the curious case of the Egyptian pharaohs wearing the false, metallic, beards held by a strap. Although the Egyptian pharaohs and the nobility were meticulous shavers, right from the early Dynastic Period they adorned themselves with a false beard on certain ceremonial occasions. What could have inspired them to adopt this strange habit? Were they trying to imitate a revered ancestor?

A likely possibility is that the pharaoh was imitating Hercules-Balarama. Hercules was primarily depicted with a beard in Greco-Roman art, and practically all the different versions of Hercules-Balarama were depicted with a beard. The Babylonian Belus was a bearded person, as was Baal and his various syncretic representations such as Baal-Hammon, the chief god of Carthage, Baal-Hadad, the god of rains and storms, or Saturn Baal, a fusion of the Roman God Saturn and Baal. Melqart of the Phoenicians was also shown as a bearded person.
A Bust of Hercules. 2nd Century AD
Fig 7: A Bust of Hercules. 2nd Century AD. Source: British Museum.
Baal-Hammon, the chief god of Carthage
Fig 8: Baal-Hammon, the chief god of Carthage. Source: Wikimedia Commons
Finally, let us look at what is possibly the most unusual element in the iconography of the pharaoh – the animal's tail that was typically attached to the back of the pharaoh's garment, particularly in the early periods of Egyptian history.

The Lion's Tail

In the Narmer Palette, this tail is clearly visible, attached to the kilt of King Narmer. Some Egyptologists believe that this could be a “bull’s tail”. Since the pharaoh was known by epithets such as the “Strong Bull” or the “Mighty Bull”, the bull’s tail may have highlighted the strength and procreative powers of the pharaoh.

According to the British Egyptologist Gerald Massey, however, this was actually a lion’s tail since the pharaoh represented the lion: 
“The pharaoh personated the lion, or the lion-god, and sometimes wore the lion's tail as the emblem of royalty. Then he was Paru as the lion and hak as the ruler. Thus the king as lion-ruler would be the Paruhak = Pharaoh.”[v] 
This view is supported by Beatrice Tessier of the Oriental Institute, Oxford, who states in her study of Syro-Palestinian Cylinder Seals that, “the Pharaoh is almost invariably dressed in one of a variety of short kilts, with or without the lion or panther tail, and aprons.”[vi] 

The lion or panther tail is more significant symbolically, since the emblem of the lion generally represented royalty. Nevertheless, to attach a lion’s tail at the back of a pharaoh does seem somewhat strange, and even derogatory, by most standards. The real clue to this mystery comes to us from Egyptologist Jill Kamil who believes that this tail might have been the vestige of a previous ceremonial robe made out of a complete animal skin.[vii].

Now a clearer picture begins to emerge. In the early Dynastic Period, the pharaoh wore a complete lion skin, but since the hot climate of Egypt did not permit the wearing of such a garment, it was later reduced to a lion’s tail attached to the back of the kilt. Subsequently, even the tail was removed from the royal regalia.

But why did the pharaoh of Egypt, living in a hot, dry, desert climate, choose to wear the complete lion (or leopard) skin? The answer points us straight to Hercules-Balarama! In Greco-Roman art, Hercules is nearly always depicted wearing the skin of the Nemean Lion which he had killed in his first labor, while in India Balarama is depicted with the lion skin as well as the leopard skin. And if we look at a depiction of Hercules from the Classical Period, what do we find hanging from the back of Hercules? The tail of the lion! This was the emblem that was used by the Egyptian pharaoh as part of the royal regalia. The pharaoh, undoubtedly, was presenting himself as a descendant of Hercules-Balarama, who had established the foundations of the monarchy and priesthood in Predynastic Egypt.
Hercules dressed in the skin of the Nemean Lion, trying to kill the Hydra of Lerna
Fig 9: Hercules dressed in the skin of the Nemean Lion, trying to kill the Hydra of Lerna. Source: Wikipedia
This comparative analysis demonstrates that many of the symbolic attributes of Hercules-Balarama were skillfully woven into the regalia of the Egyptian pharaoh. When we look at the pharaonic insignia in isolation they appear like a confusing, random, assortment of symbols and it becomes very difficult to identify the origins or meanings of these symbols. But, in the context of Hercules-Balarama, they all make sense. The was scepter, the mace, the Uraeus, the crook and the flail, the false beard, and even the lion’s tail – all of these prominent and well-known symbols of the pharaoh are directly traceable to Hercules-Balarama.

It is quite incredible to realize that all through the Dynastic Period the Egyptian pharaoh had been imitating Hercules Balarama who had played such an important role in Egypt in the early Predynastic Period, sometime around 4000 BC!

Hercules continued to exert an enormous influence in the Greco-Roman world, long after his death. In ancient Greece, the Heraclids or Heraclidae regarded themselves as descendants of Heracles. They were a group of Dorian kings, who conquered the Peloponnesian kingdoms of Mycenae, Sparta and Argos, and claimed a right a rule through their heroic ancestor. Even Alexander the Great tried to stress on his Dorian roots, and his descent from the Heraclidae kings, by wearing a lion skin just like Heracles. His historians, who accompanied him on his campaigns, glorified him as Heracles. 

It is well known that the Roman Emperor Commodus used to dress up like Heracles with the lion-skin armour, club and plough, and was even depicted on a medallion ploughing out the original furrow of Rome. The descendants of Hercules also ruled at Babylon and Palibothra, and the kings of Scythia are also supposed to have descended from his son Scythes. In many different parts of the world we find that the symbols and ideals of kingship are tied up with this great hero.
Alexander wearing the lion skin as his helmet, in imitation of Hercules
Fig 10: Alexander wearing the lion skin as his helmet. Source:
Bust of the Roman Emperor Commodus, dressed as Hercules, 180-193 AD
Fig 11: Bust of Commodus, dressed as Hercules, 180-193 AD. Source:
Therefore, it would not be particularly odd to think that even in Egypt the pharaohs claimed their right to rule, by imitating this extraordinary hero. What is particularly amazing in the case of Egypt, however, is that so many of the symbols of Hercules-Balarama were stylized, incorporated in the royal regalia, and transmitted in an unbroken fashion for thousands of years.

The only concern is that the Egyptian sources do not tell us anything about the arrival of Hercules in Egypt, or his actions with respect to the founding of cities or the setting up of royal dynasties. There was, however, an ancient king of the Predynastic period called Anedjti who was highly revered in the Nile Delta. The information from the Egyptian sources indicates that this was the name by which Hercules was known in Egypt when he had first arrived on its shores.

Anedjti – The Egyptian Hercules

Egyptologists believe that the crook and the flail was the regalia of a Predynastic king of the Nile Delta in Lower Egypt, who became deified as the god Anedjti (or Andjety), meaning “He of Anedjt”. During the Predynastic times the Nile Delta was composed of two kingdoms. The capital city of the eastern part was Djedu (or Anedjt), which in the Greek language was called Busiris, while the capital city of the western part was Behdet. Anedjti was the primary god to be revered in the city of Djedu (or Anedjt). According to the Pyramid Texts[x], he was at the head of the eastern nomes, and his worship was widespread in the Delta.

We have noted earlier that, as per the accounts of the Greek historians, Hercules Belus had first arrived in Egypt at the port city of Heracleion in the Nile Delta, slain the tyrant king called Busiris, established his sovereignty over Egypt, and later placed his son Ramesses as the king of Egypt. In other words, just like Anedjti, he was a Predynastic king of the Nile Delta, whose symbols included the crook and the flail, and who had been deified after his death. While Anedjti’s capital city Djedu was known to the Greeks as Busiris, Hercules was credited with the killing of the tyrant king called Busiris.

So, there are enough connections here to raise the question whether Hercules Belus was the same person that the Egyptians knew as Anedjti. Let us analyze this in a little more detail.

Anedjti was regarded as an agricultural and fertility god, who made the vegetation renew every year. He was also a herder god - the god of domestic and farm animals - and Egyptologists believe that he probably introduced the use of the shepherds crook as an emblem of kingship.  Anedjti was attributed with high virility as is evident from his epithet Bull of Vultures”, which meant that he was the consort of several goddesses. He was also a highly powerful king for the Pyramid Texts refer to Anedjti as the “embodiment of Pharonic power”. As we noted earlier, Hercules-Balarama was also a shepherd in his youth, and strength, fertility and virility were his defining attributes. 

According to the legends, Anedjti had drained the swamps of the Delta, and made them arable. This is the type of accomplishment that has traditionally been associated with Hercules-Balarama. Belus is credited with draining the region of Babylon, which had been covered by the sea, while in India, Krishna-Balarama had reclaimed land from the Arabian Sea, and built the fabulous island-city of Dwarka. If we look at the iconography of Anedjti, we find him depicted as an old man bearing all of the emblems of kingship. He wears a crown (the “Anedjti crown”) of two ostrich feathers, with a small sun-disk in the center, and flanked by two uraei. The presence of the serpent on the crown indicates a connection to Balarama, while the presence of the “feathers in the crown” points to Krishna, the brother of Balarama, who was always depicted with feathers in his headdress.

Anedjti, however, could not retain his status as an independent deity for long. During the 11th dynasty Anedjti became assimilated with Osiris (Wesir), who was at that time a local god responsible for fertility and the success of the crops. As a consequence of the union of these two ancient deties, Osiris became one of the most prominent gods of the Egyptian pantheon. Egyptologists believe that Osiris took on Anedjti’s royal attributes – the crook and the flail - as well as the Atef crown. It is possible that even the false beard of Osiris was an imitation of Anedjti. Another extremely important symbol associated with Osiris that was taken over from Anedjti was the djed pillar – a tall, upright pillar with two feathers on top. This symbol was worshipped at Djedu (the Djed derives its name from Djedu), the capital city of the eastern nomes of the Nile Delta, and the sacred Osirian festival called the “Raising up of the Djed Pillar” used to be celebrated every year at Djedu. We should note that the pillar with a palm capital was also a sacred symbol of Balarama, while the pole or tree stem was sacred to Baal. 
Bronze statue of Osiris, c. 664 BC-642 CE. Osiris is bearded, wearing the Atef crown with the Uraeus, and holding the crook and the flail.
Fig 12: Bronze statue of Osiris, c. 664 BC-642 CE. Osiris is bearded, wearing the Atef crown with the Uraeus, and holding the crook and the flail. University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archeology and Anthropology exhibit. Source: Wikimedia Commons
In some rare instances, the combined deity Osiris-Anedjti was worshipped. For instance, in the temple of Seti I at Abydos, the king is shown offering incense to Osiris-Anedjti who is accompanied by Isis. However, for the most part the individual identity of Anedjti was completely lost due to his assimilation with Osiris so early in the Egyptian history. We can now see why the arrival and exploits of Hercules in Egypt have been so difficult to identify from the ancient Egyptian sources – for he was known by a different name i.e. Anedjti, and he was merged with Osiris in the 11th dynasty, thereby losing his individual identity.

As mentioned in an earlier, Hercules had also come to be venerated in Upper Egypt as the protector deity Khonsu. When the Kushites from the Indus Valley arrived in Egypt in c.1550 BC, at the beginning of the New Kingdom, they recognized his true identity, and included him in the Theban triad of divinities as the counterpart of Balarama. Therefore, both Anedjti and Khonsu can be regarded as the Egyptian counterparts of Hercules-Balarama, although it was Anedjti who was the original Egyptian Hercules, the accounts of whose exploits in Egypt have been preserved by the Greek historians. 


The traditional historical accounts indicate that Hercules-Balarama had arrived in Egypt during the Predynastic Period, sometime around c.4000 BC. He stopped a flood on the Nile, killed the tyrant king Busiris, and placed his son Ramesses as the king of Egypt, thereby starting a new dynastic succession and a new form of kingship and priesthood. An analysis of the regalia of the Egyptian pharaoh indicates that the Egyptian king was imitating Hercules-Balarama, by incorporating the symbolic attributes associated with this legendary hero as part of the royal insignia. Thus, the most prominent symbols of the pharaoh - such as the was scepter, the mace, the crook and the flail, the White crown of Upper Egypt, the Uraeus, the Atef crown, the false beard and even the lion’s tail – can be traced to Hercules-Balarama.

It is possible to identify the deified Predynastic king of the Nile Delta, Anedjti, as the person whom the Greek historians had identified as Hercules or Belus. Anedjti was depicted with all the symbols of the pharaoh, and he resembled Hercules in his representation as a shepherd-god, embodying pharaonic strength, fertility and virility. The individual identity of Anedjti, however, was lost during the 11th dynasty due to his assimilation with Osiris. Hercules-Balarama was also venerated at the city of Thebes in Upper Egypt as the god Khonsu, who was incorporated into the Theban triad of divinities, along with Amun and Mut.

The tremendous impact that Hercules-Balarama had on the institution of monarchy in ancient Egypt becomes evident from this analysis. It is conceivable that Hercules-Balarama may have also influenced many other aspects of the Egyptian life - priesthood, religion, philosophy, military, astrology, astronomy etc. - to a considerable degree, which needs to be investigated.

End Notes

[i] Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca, Book 3 
[ii] Philip Steele, Ancient Egypt., The Rosen Publishing Group, 2002, p 12 taken from Wikipedia 
[iii] Tutankhamun "Wonderful Things" From The Pharaoh’s Tomb, Herkimer Community Museum, p 75. 
[v] Gerald Massey, Ancient Egypt: The Light of the World, Cosimo, Inc., 2007, p 534 
[vi] Beatrice Teissier,  Egyptian Iconography on Syro-Palestinian Cylinder Seals of the Middle Bronze Age, Saint-Paul, 1996, p 122 
[vii] Jill Kamil, The Ancient Egyptians: Life in the Old Kingdom, American University in Cairo, 1996, Page 47, taken from Wikipedia 
[viii] Bob Brier, A. Hoyt Hobbs, Daily Life of the Ancient Egyptians, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2008, p 140 
[ix] Balarama and Khonsu: Comparisons between the Indian and Theban Hercules, 
[x] Pyramid Texts spell 220
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Bibhu Dev Misra

Independent researcher and writer on ancient mysteries, cultural connections, cosmic wisdom, religion and science. Graduate of IIT and IIM with two decades of work experience in different fields

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10 comments so far,Add yours

  1. I actually had one doubt. But you haven't written any article on it. In mahabharata Krishna sided with pandavas against kauravas.
    But pandavas weren't righteous either.
    Like betting draupadi,all marrying her etc.
    Can you please explain me.
    Also you must know that jesus christ actually died in kashmir and he became a hindu who meditated there.
    There are clear proofs of it too.
    Eagerly waiting for your next article.

    1. We should not confuse righteousness with infallibility. Righteous people can also make mistakes. The wise man repents for his mistakes, learns from them, and does not repeat them. I do not consider the marriage of Draupadi to be unrighteous - it was done with the consent of their mother, of society and of Draupadi. The gambling event was an grave error for which Yudisthira deeply repented. All the five Pandava brothers were deeply religious, ethical, just, compassionate and possessed all the desirable virtues. Naturally Krishna favored them.

      There is a fair amount of evidence that Jesus had visited India during his formative years and learnt from the Hindu and Buddhist saints before returning to Jerusalem. It is also quite possible that he escaped his crucifixion, escaped to Kashmir and died there. A number of books have been written on this topic, and I have read one of them.

    2. Interesting....making Christ another avatar...just like the Buddha...

    3. Yes, Christ would be an avatar from the Indian perspective...

  2. We Indians needed a person with an incisive mind to decode the great wealth of information that's hidden in our myths,mythologies,ancient texts etc. Finally one such person has done good research and written clearly about it in this blog. Great work Mr. Misra.I hope you will soon publish a book soon.

    1. Thanks for your appreciation. I hope that I shall be able to put together a book in future.

  3. I have been doing some translation work on Mahabharta along with my father Dr. M. R. Goyal, a Sanskrit Scholar, who has worked to cleanse the present volumes of the interpolations and additions. I would really appreciate if I could get some advice/input from a knowledgeable person like you. Can I correspond with you on the topic?

    1. I shall be happy to correspond with you on this topic, and share my thoughts. Please drop me an email at

  4. I appreciate your efforts of decoding.... I am sure we are traveling in same path... I recently did some research on Egypt which is very shocking that our/their cultures are same I made a vedio in YouTube but they stopped my vedio saying some technical issues... Know I am confident I am not wrong... I Will again try to upload...

    1. Thanks. There are a great many similarities between the Indian and Egyptian cultures, and once we dig deeper many more connections begin to emerge. All the best for your research. Please share the link to your youtube video once it is uploaded.